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Skin & DM, terms 403

National University: Nursing Theory Jan 2014

QuestionAnswer
Abrasion scraping, rubbing away of epidermis - may result localized bleeding/weeping of serous fluid
Blanching 1.Skin whitening due to: 2.Pressure 3.Vasoconstriction Hypotension
Debridement removal of dead tissue from wound
Dehiscence separation of wound's edges revealing the underlying tissue
Eschar scab/dry crust from skin excoriation (skin scored)
Excoriation abrasion of skin surface (scored)
Evisceration protrusion of visceral organs through wound
Fistula 1. abnormal passage from internal organ to body surface 2. abnormal passage between two internal organs
Granulation tissue soft/pink/fleshy projections of tissue that form during the healing process in a wound that is not healing by primary intention
Primary intention initial union of wound edges that progress to complete scar formulation without granulation
Hematoma collection of blood trapped in tissues of skin/organ
Hemostasis termination of bleeding 1. by mechanical 2. chemical means 3. coagulation process of the body (blood stays = stops)
Induration hardening of tissue, particularly skin, because of edema/inflammation
Laceration torn/jagged wound
Pressure ulcer inflammation/sore/ulcer in skin over bony prominence
Decubitus pressure sore from laying down
Purulent producing/containing pus
Suppurative generation of pus
Sanguineous fluid containing RBCs
Secondary Intention wound closure with separated edges causing granulation to fill the gaps epithelium grows over granulation forming a larger scar than if healed by primary intention
Serosanguineous RBC containing fluid WITH SERUM
Serous clear (plasma like) fluid forming exudate at the site of inflammation
Exudates fluid/cells/other substances that have been slowly discharged from cells or blood vessels through small pores or breaks in cell membrane
Shearing force FRICTION exerted when a person is moved/repositioned in bed by being pulled or allowed to slide down in bed
Slough shedding of dead tissue cells
Sutures wound closing similar to sewing
Tertiary Intention delayed wound healing
Tissue ischemia point at which tissue receive insufficient oxygen and perfusion
Vacuum assisted closure treatment for surgical wounds where a pump applies negative pressure to a wound space via tube inserted into wound. Pump is secured in place with disposable sponge covered by a vapor-permeable dressing
Erythema redness/inflammation of skin/mucous membranes resulting from dilation/congestion of superficial capillaries (AKA sunburn)
Excoriation skin injury due to abrasion
indurated hardened tissue (sink) due to edema, inflammation, or infiltration by a tumor
Integument skin (DEC - dermis, epidermis, and 4 appendages 1.hair 2.nails 3.sweat glands 4.sebaceous glands
Turgor normal resiliency of skin cause by outward pressure of cells and interstitial fluid
Edema abnormal accumulation of fluid in interstitial spaces of tissue (AKA swelling)
Exudates fluid/cells/other substances that have slowly been discharged from cells or blood vessels through small pores/breaks in cell membranes (CELLULAR LEVEL)
Hyperlipidemia excessive lipid blood level
Hyperglycemia abnormally high blood sugar levels,resulting in: 1.decreased wound healing 2.decreased ability to fight infection 3.worsens neurological deficits 4.increased risk of death in critically ill patients
Hyperglycemia damages which organs? 1.kidneys 2.peripheral nerves 3.retinae 4.blood vessels 5.heart
Glucagon is found where? polypeptide hormone secreted by alpha cells of pancreas
What does Glucagon do? Increases blood glucose level by stimulating LIVER to change store glycogen into glucose
Why is Glucagon important? 1. Opposes action of insulin 2. DM pts inject to reverse a. hypoglycemic reactions b. insulin shock 3. Increases use of fats & excess amino acids (proteins) for energy production (Atkins?)
Polyuria abnormally high volume of urine
what is polydipsia? excessive thirst
What are the s/s of Polydipsia 1. dehydration 2. hyperglycemia 3. hypovolemia
Polyphagia gluttony
Microvascular smallest arterioles & venules capillary network
Macrovascular largest arteries and veins 1. Aorta, 2. coronary arteries 3. inferior/superior vena cava
Neuropathy inflammation/degeneration of peripheral nerves altering sensory/motor function
Retinopathy definition? noninflammatory retinal damage or disease
Retinopathy left untreated causes? Gradual loss of vision and eventual blindness
Retinopathy results from? Caused by systemic illnesses: 1. hypertension 2. Diabetes Millitus
Nephropathy definition kidney disease
Nephropathy causes which diseases 1. nephritis (inflammation of kidney) 2. nephrosis (degeneration of kidney) 3. sclerotic lesions (kidney scaring
Preparandial before a meal