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Russia and Eurasia

Russia & Eurasia

taiga Earth's and Russia's largest forest made up of coniferous trees
tundra vast, treeless plain north of Arctic Circle with average temps below freezing
permafrost permanently frozen layer of soil beneath surface of ground
Ural Mountains Range/boundary between Europe & Asia rich in iron ore, oil, natural gas; separates developed from developing Russia; physical barrier between Eurasia & Asia
Lake Baikal Earth's and Russia's oldest, deepest lake; holds 1/5th of world's freshwater
radioactive waste contamination of water and air causing pollution from nuclear waste and weapons of mass destruction residue
steppe wide, grassy plain with dry summers & long cold winters, rich chernozem soil, located in SW/SE Russia, Eastern Europe, parts of Mongolia
pesticides pollution causing chemicals which run off into lakes & rivers, used to kill crop-destroying rodents & insects
chernozem rich black soil good for agriculture in Northern European Plain where 75% of Russia's population lives
3 characteristics of Russia 1-largest country in world 2-formerly U.S.S.R. [Union of Soviet Socialist Republics; now a unified country 3-formerly communist with command economy; now an independent republic with market economy
Soviet-Era period from 1922-1991 when Russia was part of U.S.S.R. and communist
nationality people who share feelings of pride and common language, religion, customs, beliefs
satellite nations Eastern European countries formerly controlled by U.S.S.R. superpower after World War II
communism belief based on Karl Marx's ideas; called for overthrow of government and wealthy ruling class and creation of new society of workers
sovereignty "self rule"; an independent nation has sovereignty but Russia's satellite nations did not have sovereignty
command economy government run, communistic economy where resources [jobs, housing, businesses, production] are controlled by a central authoritative government
market economy based on "free enterprise" with private ownership by individuals/companies, and production is based on "supply and demand"
privatization when government owned companies change over to privately owned companies
Russification government policy that encouraged people to speak Russian & practice Eastern Russian Orthodox Christianity to exclude non-natives from living in Russia [such as Jews & Muslims]
socialism belief in economic equality [all land is public and wealth is shared equally] in society proposed by Karl Marx
Bolshevik Party Revolutionary group led by Vladimir Lenin to overthrow the czars in 1917-1922 and create the U.S.S.R. communist government
intelligentsia Soviet-era government officials educated in technology & politics, considered the "intellectual elite" in U.S.S.R.
Shatter Belt Region marked by conflict & aggression due to location "stuck" between opposing [cultural/political] groups
glasnost means "openness" in Russian; allowed free exchange of ideas in post-Cold War period
perestroika policy of economic reforms ["restructuring"] by Pres. Gorbachev in order to move Russia toward a democratic, free enterprise economy
Moscow Capital city of Republic of Russia and country's industrial center; home to Kremlin
Kremlin home of government in Russia, located in Moscow, official name is "Russian Federation"
czar leader and "supreme ruler" in pre-Soviet-Era Russia
kolkhozes Soviet-Era farms worked by farmers who shared some of the profits
sovkhozes Soviet-Era farms that were run like factories with farmers who were paid wages only for work done and no profits
serf peasant-type worker who is bound to the land and controlled by nobility landowners
Chernobyl Disaster Fire in nuclear reactor in 1986 killed & displaced thousands of Russians causing international pressure to shut down dangerous reactors
Trans-Siberian Railway 6,000 miles long connecting Moscow to Vladivostok in interior of Russia
cyrillic Slavic type of writing used primarily in Russia with unique lettering and symbols
westernization movement proposed by czar Peter I [Peter the Great] creating stronger military, education & trading to bring Russia into the modern age
Created by: poffmoore