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immune pt 1

describe the first line of defense Skin, mucous membranes
why are cigarette smokers and pts wth URTI more susceptible to lower rti? Paralyzes cilia, damaging, increases tissue inflammation which increases permebility
what is the second line of defense? phagocytic wbs Neutrphil, inflmaamation, fever, natural killer cells
what are some advantages of inflmaation it increases blood flow, increases permeability and allows neutraphils to squeeze through walls
how does a fever work? it inativated bacterial toxins which are proteins nad increases metabolism
what are the thrid line of defense? specialized lymphocytes T and B cells, and antibodies or immunoglobins
what is another name fo antibody? immunoglobin
what is the pro and con of 3rd line of defense? its harcore and powerful but it takes time to mount the response
which lines of defense are specific and which are non? first 2 are non specific third line is specific
desribe qualities of innate immunity rapid,nonspecfic, similar respnse to each eposure, defense is skin barrier mucous mmbrane, phagoctes inflammation fever, phagocytes like macrophages and neutrophils NK cells and dendritic cells
describe adaptive immunity slower- days to weeks, cell for each unique antigen has immunologic mmory for more rapid and effective killing with next exposure, direct cell killing and tagging of antigen by antibody. T and B cells
what is defiend as a foreing substance? antigen
describe the qualities of an antigen large, complex macromolecules which makes the immune system better to recognize it
what is an epitope the immune system doest recognize the whole bacteria as an antign but part of the bacteria is really the antigen that triggers the immune response recognizes certain proteins
what is a hapten? is a small molecule that when it attaches to a protein becomes a large macromolecule ex is PNC which is very small but once it enters the body and binds to proteins becomes large macromolecule
what is MHC1? proteins on the surface of all nucleated cells except immune cells that differnetiates your cells from foreingers. self from nonself
describe MHC1 upongs family an non family twins have similar MHC1 so it woud be best to get transplant form twin. the closer the family meber the more similar the Mhc, biological children get a mxture of both
what happens when your MHC1 changes? can be changed due ot infectionthis alerts immune system that there is an abnormal cell and an immune response starts
describes what happens when a normla cell is infected by virus the infected cell takes the viruses epitope adn reflects it on its MHC1 this changes the MHC1 and mounts an immune response
which part of immunity is dendritic cells? innate and adaptive
why are cytokines important helps communicate to each cell and initiate response is dependant on relese of cytokines
primary cytokine that protect host against viral infections interferons
what are tumor necrosis factor? most important mediater of inflammation, mady by macrophages also a fever producer or endogenous pyogen
what is the major effector component of innate immunity? epithlial cells, neutrophils and marophags, NK cells, compliment system
humoral responses are mediated by what? c cells
which cells are part of innate immunity macrophage, dendritic cells, NK, neutrophils, intraepithelial lymphocytes
where are dendritic cells found rare cells found to tissues exposed to environment like GI and resp system
what are osponins molecules that coat cell membranes and enhance redcognition and binding. the process of coating ios called osponization
Created by: Cherry5301