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Oncology

Sarcomas,Lymphoreticular,Leukemia,Endocrine,Respiratory,H&N,Central Nervous Syst

QuestionAnswer
T/F Presenting symptoms for a bone sarcoma typically could be a painful mass with swelling, fractured bone, and/or compressed nerves. True
Most bone malignancies are primary or secondary malignancies? Secondary
When dealing with bone sarcomas, if nodes are found to be positive then the patient is automatically diagnosed to be in what stage? Stage III
Multiple myeloma is systemic which would make what treatment modality best suited for treatment? Chemotherapy
When treating a young patient for sarcoma of the bone, what should be avoided on at least one end of the bone? Growth plates (to preserve growth)
T/F If an entire limb is being radiated, then fields will shrink after 20 Gy for young patients and 40 Gy for an adult while the final boost field will conform to the primary tumor. True
Total dose for primary bone tumors 50-70 Gy
Condition of localized fluid retention caused by a compromised lymphatic system--can be avoided by sparing soft tissue and lymphatics Lymphedema
T/F Von Recklinghausen disease and Li-Fraumeni syndrome put an individual at an increased risk for soft tissue sarcomas. True
A tumor of the smooth muscle that is typically found in the GI, GU, along smooth muscles, and vascular systems. Leiomyosarcoma
Sarcoma that occurs in people with AIDS and manifests as purplish lesions on the skin or mucosal surfaces Kaposi sarcoma
Which region of the body is not appropriate for irradiation of soft tissue sarcomas because of the surrounding critical structures? Abdomen
What would be the preferred treatment of soft tissue sarcomas. Surgery
What margin is initially given longitudinally in addition to the GTV for radiation therapy fields for soft tissue sarcomas (preoperative)? 4cm
The average dose total for extremities 80Gy
Technique used to avoid bone when treating soft tissue sarcomas Oblique angles
T/F Extremities need to be positioned so that the beam's horizontal axis is parallel to the limb to maintain dose uniformity. True
What is the cell type that determines if a patient has Hodgkin Lymphoma rather than Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma? Reed-Sternberg cell
T/F Hodgkin Lymphoma (HD) spreads randomly while Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) spreads contiguously. False
Between Hodgkin-Lyphoma (HD) and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL), which one is rare in children under 10? Hodgkin (NHL third most common childhood malignancy)
T/F Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) is believed to be caused by genetic alterations of the B or T lymphocytes. True
Are "B" symptoms such as Unexplained fever, drenching night sweats, 10% body weight loss in 6 months or less, and/or alcohol sensitivity associated with HD or NHL? Hodgkins
What staging system is used for HD and NHL? Ann Arbor
T/F A mantle field can be used for radiation therapy of NHL. False
When the mouth and neck area are being treated for NHL name three possible side effects? dry mouth, difficulty swallowing, loss of appetite, mucositis, mouth sores, A candida infection, altered taste, redness of skin, sore throat, transient dysphagia from esophagitis, dry cough
T/F Myelogenous leukemia arises from hemopoietic stem cells and lymphocytic leukemia arises from other cells populating in the bone marrow. True
Name one disorder that leukemia causes because of the decrease in the number of necessary blood components. anemia, thrombocytopenia,or neutropenia
T/F Normal blood value range for WBCs would be 2 to 9.8 thousand/mm3. False (3.9-10.8)
What prognosis would an 11 year old with a leukocyte count of 51,000/mm3 have? Poor prognosis (age 1 or younger and older than 10 carry poor prognosis as well as the leukocyte count is on the extreme high end)
Define the medical term Epistaxis Nose Bleeds
T/F An abnormally high leukocyte count typically means a poorer prognosis for acute lymphocytic leukemia. True
Name a possible radiation therapy treatment technique used to treat acute lymphocytic or myelogenous leukemia. TBI 1200cGy 3 consecutive days 200cGy BID, Helmet field 1800cGy 200cGy a day, or CNS with helmet field
Which leukemia is the only one that is not associated with radiation exposure. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia
When considering radiation therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, would it be used before, during, or after chemotherapy? Radiation therapy is used palliatively for localized masses of lyphoid tissue and/or enlarge spleen after these areas show to be resistant to chemotherapy.
T/F There are three stages of chronic myelogenous leukemia: chronic, accelerated, and acute phase or blast crisis. True
What type of isolation should be used for leukemia patients? Reverse isolation
The most common occuring cancer of the endocrine malignancies. Thyroid (Most common)
What is the strongest risk factor for thyroid cancer? External radiation, especially before puberty, and as low as 2cGy.
What radioisotope is used to treat thyroid cancers? Radioactive iodine
T/F Papillary and mixed papillary-follicular carcinomas of the thyroid prove to be most radiosensitive. True
Are pituitary tumors mostly benign or malignant? Benign
Name a hormone that may be secreted in excess because of a pituitary tumor. Prolactin(PRL), growth hormone(GH), TSH, adrenocorticotrohic hormone(ACTH)
What is a transsphenoidal hypophysectomy? Procedure to removed tumors of the pituitary gland--housed in the sella turcica
Where are the adrenal glands located? The superior pole of the kidneys
Considering the anatomical position of the adrenal glands, name the organs that could be impacted by local invasion of the right adrenal gland. The right kidney, liver, and vena cava
Lining that surrounds the lungs Pleura ([
What cancer is the leading cause of death for men and women? Lung
Name 2 possible signs/symptoms that a patient would present with for lung cancer. Nagging cough, chest pain, hoarseness, weight loss, loss of appetite, bloody sputum, shortness of breath, recurring chest infections, wheezing (Rad Ther Ess p23)
Lung cancer that is located in the pleura of the lungs. Mesotheliomas
A lung tumor that is located in the apex of the lung and horner syndrome is often associated with it as well as disruption of the brachial plexus. Pancoast
Prophylactic treatment is often given to what region of the body when a patient is diagnosed with small cell lung cancer? The brain
What is the number one risk factor for head and neck cancers? Smoking
What is the most common nodes involved with head and neck cancers? Jugulodigastric nodes (Located at the angle of the mandible)
Name 3 critical structures of the head and neck and the TD 5/5's that should be considered when treatment plans are developed. Spine 4700cGy, Lens 1000cGy, Lacrimal gland 2600cGy, Optic Chiasm 5000cGy, Optic Nerve 5000cGy, Parotid 3200cGy, TMJ 6000cGy, Esophagus 5500cGy, Thyroid 4500cGy, Larynx 4500cGy, Middle Ear 5500cGy
What is the medical term for dryness of the oral cavity? Xerostomia
This is fibrosis around the masticatory muscles and TMJ. Trismus
Which sinus is the most common for the occurrence of cancer? Maxillary
T/F The soft palate is considered to be part of the oral cavity. False (Hard palate only)
The most common histology of the parotid gland Adenocarcinoma
T/F A tumor of the nasopharynx can possibly cause hearing loss. True
What sinus is included in the hypopharynx? Pyriform sinus
The larynx extends from the tip of the epiglottis to the inferior border of what cartilage? Cricoid
What is the most common symptom of laryngeal cancer? Hoarseness
What is the most common histology of cancer of the larynx? Squamous Cell
Created by: amberleahw81