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Urinary System

Urinary System functions are: Regulates blood volume, fluid-electrolyte balance, and acid-base balance
Where are the kidneys located? Upper abdominal cavity on either side of the spine
Adipose capsule Layer of fat surrounding each kidney
Renal fascia Membrane covering each kidney which holds each kidney in place
Kidney shape Bean shaped, 4 inches long and 2 inches wide
Renal artery Branches from abdominal aorta, carries arterial blood into kidney from abdominal aorta
Renal vein Carries venous blood out of kidney into inferior vena cava
Ureter Carries urine from the kidneys to the bladder
Renal cortex Made of renal corpuscles and convoluted tubules of nephron
Renal medulla Made of loops of Henle and collecting tubules (pyramids and papilla)
Renal pelvis Innermost area (calyces)
Nephrons Functional units of the kidneys where urine is formed from blood plasma
2 main parts of the nephron Renal corpuscle & renal tubule
Renal tubule 1) proximal convoluted tubule 2) loop of Henle 3) distal convoluted tubule 4)collecting tubule 5) peri tubular capillaries
Peri tubular capillaries Blood vessels that surround the renal tubules; substances in the renal tubules will pass into the blood in these
Glomeruluar filtration High pressure in the glomerulus that forces plasma and dissolved nutrients out of the blood into Bowman's capsule; this fluid is called renal filtrate
Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) Amount of renal filtrate formed by the kidneys in 1 minute; normal GFR=125ml/min (about 180 liters per day)
High BP will __ GFR Raise
Low BP will __ GFR Lower
Tubular reabsorption Most of the renal filtrate is reabsorbed out of the renal tubules back into the blood
Normal daily urine output 1-2 liters
Active transport How most substances (glucose, amino acids, positive ions, vitamins, minerals) are reabsorbed back into the blood from the renal tubules. Low to high concentration with the help of ATP
Threshold level Limit to quantity of substances that can be reabsorbed back into blood
Passive transport How negative ions are reabsorbed back into the blood from the renal tubules. Negative ions follow positive ions b/c opposites attract
Osmosis How water is reabsorbed back into the blood from the renal tubules (typically follows Na+)
Osmosis is influenced by these 3 hormones 1) ADH, Pituitary 2) Aldosterone ^ H2O reabsorption, decreases urine output, Adrenals 3) ANP, decreases H2O reabsorption, increases urine output
Pinocytosis Stationary cells will engulf proteins that are too large to be reabsorbed by active transport; no protein should enter the urine
Tubular secretion Substances actively secreted from the peri tubular capillaries into the filtrate such as: H+ ions, ammonia (stinky pee), & end product of medications
Metabolic acidosis Low pH and low HCO3; renal disease, DKA
Metabolic alkalosis High pH and high HCO3; antacid overuse, gastric suctioning
Decreased BP causes kidney to secrete __ which initiates the renin-angiotensin mechanism Renin
Angiotensin 2 causes__ and increases release of aldosterone which in turn __ BP Vasoconstriction, increases
Erythropoletin is released when blood O2 is __ and it causes __ RBC production Decreased, increased
Vitamin D is formed from cholesterol in the __ when it is exposed to ultraviolet rays & is converted into vitamin D3 by the kidneys Skin
Ureters 2 tubes that lead out of the renal pelvis of each kidney; connect the kidneys to the urinary bladder; lined with mucous membrane
Urine moves down the ureters by __ towards __ Peristalsis, urinary bladder
Bladder sits below uterus in __ Females
Bladder sits above prostate in __ Males
Bladder Transitional epithelium tissue lines the inside and allows expansion
Rugae Folds inside bladder
Trigone Triangular area on bladder floor
Urethra Tube located between bladder and outside
In females, urethra carries Urine
In males, urethra carries Urine and sperm
Urination is also called __ Voiding or micturition
Stimulus for urination is__ Stretching of the bladder/detrusor muscle
Detrusor muscle Smooth muscle layer wall of bladder that contracts for emptying
Flow of urine 1) kidneys produce 2) ureters transport 3) urinary bladder stores 4) urethra passes to outside
Urine color is Golden yellow (straw) to amber
Lighter urine color is Dilute
Darker urine color is Concentrated
Fresh voided urine should be Clear
Urine has an aromatic odor due to the presence of Ammonia
Urine odor is affected by Foods, drugs, presence of UTI
Normal urine specific gravity 1.010-1.025
Normal urine pH 4.5-7.5
Urine composition 1) 95% water 2) 5% salts/wastes (urea, uric acid, creatinine)
Glycosuria Glucose in urine
Ketonuria Ketones in urine
Proteinuria Protein in urine
Hematuria Blood/RBCs in urine
Bacteriuria Bacteria in urine (cloudy)
IV bag = 1000 ccs, 1000 mls, 1 liter
To calculate number of mLs per hour Total volume divided by total time (ex: 1000 mLs/8 hours=125 mL per hour)
Tubing set drop factors 10,15, 20, or 60 (micro drip)
To calculate drops per minute Total volume multiplied by drop factor, divided by time in minutes (ex: 500mLs X 15/ 360 mins=21gtts/min)
Created by: Kmccarty