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Science Exam 8th Mid

St MAry's Annapolis 8th Grade Science Mid Term Study Guide

Energy the ability to do work and cause change
Atmosphere the relatively thin layer of gases that envelope the earth
Geosphere densest part of earth includes crust, mantle and core
Hydrosphere the portion of earth that consist of water in any forms
Biosphere part of earth that contains living things
Constructive force any natural process that builds up Earth’s surface
Destructive force any natural process that tears down or wears away the earth
Pressure the force pushing on a surface divided by the surface area
Crust the layer of rock that forms the most outer layer of the planet
Basalt a dark, dense, igneous rock that forms on the oceanic crust
Granite a usually light colored igneous rock found in the continental crust
Mantle the layer of hot solid material between earth’s crust and core
Lithosphere a rigid layer made up of the uppermost part of the mantle and the crust
Asthenosphere a soft layer of the mantle on which the lithosphere floats
Outer core a layer of molten iron and nickel that surrounds the inner core of the earth
Inner core a dense sphere of solid iron and nickel at the center of the earth
Radiation the transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves
Convection the transfer of thermal energy by the movement of fluid
Conduction the transfer of thermal from one particle to another
Convection currents the movement of fluids caused by the differences in temperatures
Topography the shape of the land determined by elevation, relief, and landforms
Elevation height above sea level
Relief the difference between elevations
Plateau a large landform that has high elevation and low relief
Mineral a naturally occurring solid that can form from inorganic processes and that has a crystal structure and definite chemical composition
Inorganic Not formed from living things or the remains of living things
Crystal a solid in which the atoms are arranged in a pattern that repeats again and again
Streak the color of a minerals powder
Luster the way a mineral reflects light
Cleavage a minerals ability to spilt easily along flat surfaces
Crystallization the process by which atoms are arranged to form a material with a crystal structure
Moh’s hardness scale a scale ranking ten minerals form softest to hardest
Texture the look and feel of the rock’s surface, determined by the size, shape, and pattern of the rock’s grains
Igneous rock a type of rock that forms from the cooling of molten rock that forms the cooling o molten rock at or below the surface
Sedimentary rock a type of rock that forms when particles from other rocks or the remains of plants and animals are pressed and cemented together
Metamorphic rock a type of rock that forms from an existing rock that is changed by heat, pressure, or chemical reactions
Intrusive rock Igneous rock that forms when magma hardens beneath earth’s surface
Rock forming mineral any of the common minerals that make up most of the rocks of Earth’s crust
Sediment small solid pieces of material that come from rocks or the remains of organisms
Weathering the chemical and physical process that break down rock and other substances
Erosion the process by which water, ice, wind or gravity moves weathered particles of rock and soil
Deposition Process in sediment is laid down in a new location
Cementation the process by which dissolved minerals crystallize and glue particles of sediment together into one mass
Clastic rock sedimentary rock that forms fragments are squeezed together under high pressure
Organic rock sedimentary rock that forms from remains of organisms deposited in thick layers
Chemical rock sedimentary rock that forms when minerals crystallize from a solutions
Foliated term used to describe metamorphic rock that have grains arranged in parallel bands
Rock cycle a series of processes on the surface and inside Earth that slowly changes rocks from one kind to another
Texture the look and feel of a rock’s surface, determined by the size, shape, and pattern of a rock’s surface
Fracture the way a mineral looks when it breaks apart in an irregular way
Extrusive rock Igneous rock that forms from lava on Earth’s surface
Compaction the process by which sediments are pressed together under their own weight
Grain the particles of minerals or other rocks that give a rock its texture
Continental drift the hypothesis is that the continents
Pangaea the name of the single landmass that began to break apart 200 million years ago to give rise to today’s continents
Fossil the preserved remains or traces of an of ancient organisms that lived in the past
Mid ocean ridge An undersea mountain chain where new ocean floor is produced
Transform boundary a plate boundary where two plates move past each other in opposite directions
Sea floor spreading the process by which molten material adds new oceanic crust to the deep ocean floor
Deep ocean trench
Subduction the process by which oceanic crust sinks beneath a deep
Plate a section of the lithosphere that slowly moves over the asthenosphere, carrying pieces of continental and oceanic crust
Convergent boundary a plate boundary where two plates move towards each other
Divergent boundary a plate boundary where two plates move away from each other
Fault a break in the earth’s crust
Rift valley a deep valley that forms where two plates pull apart
Plate tectonics the theory that pieces of Earth’s lithosphere are in constant motion, driven by convection current
Stress a force that acts on rock to change its shape or volume
Tension stress that stretches rock so that it becomes thinner in the middle
Compression stress that squeezes rocks until it folds or cracks
Shearing stress that pushes masses of rock in opposite directions, in a sideways movement
Normal fault a type of fault where the hanging wall slides downwards
Reverse fault a type of fault where the hanging wall slides upwards, caused by compression in the crust
Strike slip fault a type of fault in which rocks on either side move past each
Earthquake the shaking that results from the movement of rock beneath Earth’s surface
Focus the point beneath Earth’s surface where rocks form where rocks first breaks under stress and causes an earthquake
Epicenter the point on Earth’s surface directly above an earthquake’s focus
P wave a type of seismic wave that compresses and expands the ground
S wave a type of seismic waves in which the shaking is perpendicular to the direction of the wave
Surface wave a type of seismic wave that forms when p waves and s waves reach Earth’s surface
Seismograph the device that records ground movements caused by seismic waves as they move through earth
Modified Mercalli scale a scale that rates the amount of shaking from an earthquake
Moment magnitude scale a scale that rates earthquakes by estimating the total energy released by an earthquake
Magnitude the measurement of an earthquake’s strength based on seismic waves and movements
Richter scale a scale that’s rates an earthquake’s magnitude
Seismogram record of an earthquakes seismic waves as they move through the earth
4 Main Spheres How many systems does the earth system have?
4 main spheres The earth system has how many main spheres?
T The sun can be considered part of the earth system T or F?
Cooled Magma and Lava Geologists have used two main types of evidence to learn about Earth’s interior?
crust, the mantle, and the core The three main layers of the crust are?
size, composition, temperature and pressure The layers vary greatly in?
solid rock The crust is a layer of?
dry land and the ocean floor The crust layer of solid rock includes?
basalt and granite What are the continental and oceanic crusts made of? –
rock that is very hot, but solid Earth’s mantle is made up of?
physical characteristics Scientists divide the mantle into layers based on?
Crust, Mantle, Core What are the names of the Mantle layers in order?
Nickel and Iron The core is made mostly of the metals?
a liquid outer core and a sold inner core The core consists of two parts?
Conduction, convection, and radiation There are three types of heat transfer?
Heating and cooling of the fluid, changes in the fluid’s density and the force of gravity What sets convection currents in motion?
convection currents in the mantle Heat from the core and the mantle itself causes?
They move in a circular motion Describe how and why convection currents move in the mantle?
Created by: wase13