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CP Unit 1

SPC Cardiopulmonary Physiology Unit 1

What are the four types of pulmonary epithelium? Straitifed Squamous, Pseudostratified Columnar, Cuboidal, Simple Squamous
What are the major structures of the upper airways? Nose, mouth, pharynx, larynx
What are the conducting airways of the lower airways? *Trachea (1) *Mainstem bronchi (2) *Lobar bronci (5) *Segmental bronchi (18/19) *Subsegmental bronchi (<40) *Broncioles (<1mm in diam.) *Terminal bronchioles (0.5mm in diam.)
What are the gas exchange airways? Respiratory bronchioles, Alveolar ducts, Alveolar sacs, & Alveoli
What are the types of epithelium in the pharynx? Nasopharynx – pseudostratified ciliated columnar Oropharynx – stratified squamous Laryngo/hypopharynx – stratified squamous
What are the types of epithelium in the larynx? *Above chords – stratified squamous *Below chords – pseudostratified ciliated columnar
Identify the cartilages that comprise the larynx? Epiglottis, Thyroid, Cricoid
What are the internal dimensions of the trachea? Length: 11-13 cm. 15-20 C-shaped cartilages Diameter: 1.5 - 2.5cm
What are the proximal and distal landmarks of the trachea? C-5 to T-5; Cricoids cartilage to carina; Carina is 21-23cm from the lips
Distinguish the anatomical differences of the primary bronchi. *Right: 20-30 degree angle, Length: 2.5cm, Diameter: 1.4cm *Left: 40-60 degree angle, Length: 5cm, Diameter 1.0cm
What is the composition of the epithelium which lines the lower conducting airways? Pseudostratified ciliated columnar
Identify the composition of the lamina propria Lymphatic vessels; Smooth muscle; Mast cells: also found in the submucosal glands; Vagal nerve branches
Identify two pathways by which collateral ventilation can occur across adjacent bronchioles and alveoli. Canals of Lambert & Pores of Kohn
What type of epithelium is in the respiratory bronchioles? Simple Cuboidal
What is Type I cell? Squamous pneumocyte – (they do most of the work) structural support & gas exchange
What is Type II cell? Granular pneumocyte – inclusion bodies produce surfactant – hold open alveoli
What is Type III cell? Alveolar macrophage – phagocytic “scavenger” cleans bacteria & debris
List the primary layers which constitute the alveolar-capillary membrane. Alveolar epithelium; Alveolar basement membrane; Interstitium (space between); Capillary basement membrane; Capillary endothelium.
Describe the composition of the interstitium within the alveolar-capillary membrane. *Tight space – gas exchange *Loose space – collagen for support & lymphatic vessels for fluid drainage
Identify the gross structures composing the thoracic cage. Clavicles; Sternum; Ribs
Identify the components of the pleural cavity. Visceral Pleura: lungs; Parietal Pleura: ribs, diaphragm, mediastinum; Serous membranes of cuboidal epithelium derived from mesoderm; Pulmonary Ligament: where the pleurae fuse @ the hilum
List the major organs, vessels, and nerve found in the mediastinum. Trachea & mainstem bronchi; Heart; A. aorta & pulmonary artery; Thoracic duct; Esophagus; Phrenic & Vagus nerves
List the 3 lobes of the right lung. Upper, Middle, Lower
List the 10 segments of the right lung. *Upper – apical, posterior, anterior *Middle – lateral, medial *Lower – superior, medial basal, anterior basal, lateral basal, posterior basal
List the 2 lobes of the left lung. Upper, Lower
List the 8 segments of the left lung. Upper – apical-posterior, anterior; Lingular Segments – superior lingular, inferior lingular ; Lower – superior, anterior medial, lateral basal, posterior basal
Identify the fissures of the right lung. Horizontal: separates Upper & Middle; Oblique - separates Middle & Lower
Identify the fissures of the left lung. Oblique - separates Upper & Lower
Describe the bronchial blood supply. Bronch arts perfuse lower conduct airways;1/3 of venous flow from large airways returns to R atrium via Azygos, Hemiazygos, & Intercostal veins;2/3 of venous flow from small airways form;BP Anastomoses drain into pulm circ & return to L Atrium via PVs.
Describe the pulmonary lymphatic system. Superficial: lay just below the visceral pleura. Drains excess pleural fluid
Describe the four major NON-SPECIFIC defense mechanisms of the lung. Sneeze: induced via irritation of Trigeminal Nerve;Cough: induced via irritation of Glossopharyngeal or Vagus Nerves;Mucociliary Escalator: stimulated by cholinergic stimulation ;Alveolar Clearance: macrophages (Type III cells) clear out inhaled or infe
Describe the three major SPECIFIC defense mechanisms of the lung. Immunoglobulins: IgA: antiviral; IgE: associated w/ Type I (eosinophils) hypersensitivity reactions (asthma); IgG & IgM: antibacterial & viral (anti-bodies).
Created by: vgflgirl