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Heart A&P

Anatomy and Physiology of the Heart

TermDefinition
Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) a term used to refer to distinct conditions caused by a similar sequence of pathologic events-a temporary or permanent blockage of a coronary artery
Adrenergic having the characteristics of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system
Afterload the pressure or resistance against which the ventricles must pump to eject blood
Angina Pectoris chest discomfort or other related symptoms of sudden onset that may occur because the increased oxygen demand of the heart temporarily exceeds the blood supply
Aortic Valve SL valve on the left of the heart; separates the left ventricle from the aorta
Apex of the heart lower portion of the heart that is formed by the tip of the left ventricle
Arteriosclerosis a chronic disease of the arterial system characterized by abnormal thickening and hardening of the vessel walls
Atherosclerosis a form of arteriosclerosis in which the thickening and hardening of the vessel walls are caused by a buildup of fatty deposits in the inner lining of large and middle-sized muscular arteries
Atria two upper chambers of the heart
Atrial kick blood pushed into the ventricles because of atrial contraction
Atrioventricular valve valve located between each atrium and ventricle
Atypical uncharacteristic signs and symptoms perceived by some patients experiencing a medical condition
Base posterior surface of heart
Blood pressure force exerted by the blood against the walls of the arteries as the ventricles of the heart contract and relax
Cardio output the amount of blood pumped into the aorta each minute by the heart; SV(HR)
Catecholamines natural chemicals produced by the body that have sympathetic actions; epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine
Cholinergic having the characteristics of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system
Chordae tendineae thin strands of fibrous connective tissue that extend from the AV valves to the papillary muscles that prevent the AV valves from bulging back into the atria during ventricular systole
Chronotropy a change in heart rate
Circumflex artery division of the left coronary artery
Coronary sinus outlet that drains five coronary veins into the right atrium
Diastole phase of the cardiac cycle in which the atria and ventricles relax between contractions and blood enters these chambers
Dromotrophy refers to the speed of conduction through the AV junction
Dysrhythmia any disturbance or abnormality in a normal rhythmic pattern; any cardiac rhythm other than a sinus rhythm
Ejection fraction the percentage of blood pumped out of the heart chamber with each contraction
Endocardium innermost layer of the heart that lines the inside of the myocardium and covers the heart valves
Epicardium also known as the visceral pericardium; the external layer of the heat wall that covers the heart muscle
Great vessels large vessels that carry blood to and from the heart; superior and inferior vena cavae, pulmonary veins, aorta, and pulmonary trunk
Heart failure a condition in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the metabolic needs of the body
Hypercapnea a condition in which there is an elevated concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood
Hypovolemia inadequate tissue perfusion caused by inadequate vascular volume
Infarction death of tissue because of and inadequate blood supply
Inotropy refers to a change in myocardial contractility
Ischemia decreased supply of oxygenated blood to a body part or organ
Left anterior descending artery (LAD) division of the left coronary artery
Mediastinum middle area of the thoracic cavity
Mitochondria the energy-producing parts of a cell
Myocardium middle and thickest layer of the heart
Myofibril slender striated strand of muscle tissue
Neurotransmitter a chemical released from one nerve that crosses the synaptic cleft to reach a receptor
Pericardium a double-walled sac that encloses the heart and helps protect it from trauma and infection
Peripheral resistance resistance to the flow of blood determined by blood vessel diameter and the tone of the vascular musculature
Preload force exerted by the blood on the walls of the ventricles at the end of diastole
Proximal location nearer to the midline of the body or the point of attachment than something else is
Pulmonary circulation flow of unoxygentated (venous) blood from the right ventricle to the lungs and oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium
Sarcolemma membrane that covers smooth, striated, and cardiac muscle fibers
Sarcomere smallest functional unit of a myofibril
Sarcoplasm semifluid cytoplasm of muscle cells
Sarcoplasmic reticulum network of tubules and sacs that plays and important role in muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions
Semilunar valves valves shaped like half moons that separate the ventricles from the aorta and pulmonary artery
Septum and internal wall of connective tissue
Shock inadequate tissue perfusion that results from the failure of the cardiovascular system to deliver sufficient oxygen and nutrients to sustain vital organ function
Stroke volume the amount of blood ejected from a ventricle with each heartbeat
Sulcus groove
Syncytium unit of combined cells
Systole contraction of the hear during which blood is propelled into the pulmonary artery and aorta
Tone a term that may be used when referring to the normal state of balanced tension in body tissues
Venous return amount of blood flowing into the right atrium each minute from the systemic circulation
Ventricle either of the two lower chambers of the heart
Created by: pnkrangr87