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Chapter 12

Health Promotion of the Toddler and Family

TermDefinition
average weight gain per yr during toddlerhood 4-6 lbs per year
average height increase per yr during toddlerhood 3 inches; occurs mainly in elongation of the legs rather than the trunk
walks alone using a wide stance by 12 to 13 months
try to run by 18 months but falls easily
can walk up and down stairs by 2 years old
jump using both feet by 2 1/2 year old
grasp a very small object by 12 months but are unable to release it at will
can drop a raisin into a narrow neck bottle by age 15 months
throw a ball overhand by 18 months w/o losing their balance
build towers w/ hands by 2 years old
can draw circles by age 3 years old
tertiary circular reactions (Piaget) 5th stage of sensorimotor; 13-18 months the child uses active experimentation to achieve previously unattainable goals
invention of new means through mental combination from ages 19-24 months are the final sensorimotor stage; children complete the more primitive, autistic like thought processes of infancy and are prepared for the more complex mental operations that occur during the phase of preoperational thought
domestic mimicry imitating household activities and sex role behavior become increasingly common during the sensorimotor phase and during the second year
preoperational thought implies that children cannot think in terms of operations- the ability to manipulate objects in relation to each other in a logical fashion
gender identity a sense of maleness or femaleness is formed by age 3 yrs and the child's feelings about being male or female begin to form
rapproachment as a toddler separates from the mother and begins to make sense of experiences in the environment, he or she is drawn back to the mother for assistance in verbally articulating the meaning of the experiences
transitional objects such as favorite blanket or toy, provide security for children especially when they separate from their parents, dealing w/ new stress, or just fatigued
parallel play solitary play of infancy progresses to parallel play- toddlers play alongside, not w/ other children
voluntary control of the sphincters achieved after the child is walking, between the ages of 18 and 24 months
dethronement loss of sole parental attention
regression the retreat from one's present pattern of functioning to past levels of behavior
physiological anorexia at 18 months, most toddlers manifest decreased nutritional need w/ a decreased appetite
lacto-ovo vegetarians who exclude meat from their diet but consume dairy products and rarely fish
lactovegetarians who exclude meat and eggs but drink milk
pure vegetarians (vegans) who eliminate all foods of animal origins including milk and eggs
macrobiotics who are even more restrictive than pure vegetarians, allowing only a few types of fruits, vegetables, and legumes
semi-vegetarians who consume a lacto-ovo vegetarian diet w/ some fish and poultry; this is an increasingly popular form of vegetarianism and poses little to no nutritional risk to infants unless dietary fat and cholesterol intake is restricted
sleep averages to ? during age 2 11 to 12 hours a day
early childhood caries (ECC) a special form of tooth decay in children between 18 months and 3 yrs; often occurs when a child is routinely given a bottle of milk or juice at naptime or bedtime or uses the bottle as a pacifier while awake
highest risk for drowning 12 to 36 months
Created by: Tdmara86