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Chapter 11

Health Problems of Infants

macrominerals refers to those w/ daily requirements greater than 100 mg and include calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, and sulfur
microminerals or trace elements, have daily requirements of less than 100 mg and include several essential minerals and those whose exact role in nutrition
kwashiorkor primarily a deficiency of protein w/ an adequate supply of calories; this child has thin, wasted extremities and a prominent abdomen from edema (ascites)
marasmus results from general malnutrition of both calories and protein; gradual wasting and atrophy of body tissues, especially subq fat; child appears very old, w/ loose wrinkled skin
marasmic kwashiorkor a from of PEM in which clinical findings of both kwashiorkor and marasmus are evident; the child has edema, severe wasting, and stunted growth
treatment for protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) rehydration w/ an oral rehydration solution that also replaces electrolytes; administration of antibiotics to prevent intercurrent infx; provision of adequate (energy intake) nutrition by either breastfeeding or proper weaning diet
refeeding syndrome may occur if intake progresses too rapidly; cardiac failure may cause sudden death in a child who has been malnourished and refed too rapidly
ready to use therapeutic food (RUTF) a paste based on peanut butter and dried skim milk w/ vitamins and minerals; it requires ni mixing w/ water or milk
food allergy an adverse health effect arising from a specific immune response that occurs reproducibly on exposure to a given food
food allergens specific components of food or ingredients in food such as protein that are recognized by allergen-specific immune cells eliciting an immune reaction that results in the characteristic symptoms
food intolerance exist when a food or food component elicits a reproducible adverse rxn but does not have an established or likely immunologic mechanism
clinical manifestations of food allergy systemic: anaphylactic, growth failure; GI: abdominal pain, vomiting, cramping, diarrhea; respiratory: cough, wheezing, rhinitis, infiltrates; cutaneous: urticaria,rash, atopic dermatitis
sensitization refers to the initial exposure of an individual to an allergen, resulting in an immune response; subsequent exposure induces a much stronger response that is clinically apparent
immediate GI hypersensitivity an IgE-mediated rxn to a food allergen; rxns include N/V, abdominal pain, cramping, diarrhea, anaphylaxis, or all of these
cow's milk allergy (CMA) a multifaceted disorder representing adverse systemic and local GI rxns to cow's milk protein
challenge testing involves reintroducing small quantities of milk in the diet to detect resurgence of symptoms; at times it involves the use of a placebo so that the parent is unaware the timing of allergen ingestion
failure to thrive (FTT) growth failure; is a sign of inadequate growth resulting from an inability to obtain or use calories required for growth
dyssomnias the child has trouble either falling asleep or staying asleep at night or has difficulty staying awake during the day
parasomnias confusional arousals, sleepwalking, sleep terrors, nightmares, and rhythmic movement disorders; these typically occur in children 3 to 8 yrs old
graduated extinction approach to night crying; this involves letting the child cry progressively longer times between brief parental interventions that consist only of reassurance- not rocking, holding, or using a bottle or pacifier
plagiocephaly an oblique or asymmetric head; implies an acquired condition that occurs as a result of cranial molding during infancy
colic described as abdominal pain or cramping that is manifested by loud crying and drawing legs up to the abdomen
sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) the sudden death of an infant younger that 1 yr of age remains unexplained after a complete postmortem exam, including investigation of the death scene and review of the case hx
sudden unexpected early neonatal death (SUEND) similar to SIDS but differs in regards to timing of death; occurs in the first week of life
sudden unexpected infant death (SUID) similar to SIDS but differs in regard to timing of death; considered death in the postneonatal period
cosleeping an infant sharing a bed w/ an adult or older child on a noninfant bed, has been reported to have a positive association w/ death
prone sleeping may cause oropharyngeal obstruction of affect thermal balance or arousal state
Created by: Tdmara86