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Lesson 23 Grammar

QuestionAnswer
Causautive-passive sentences Passive versions of causative sentences. "Made to do, or harassed or talked into doing, something that you did not want to do."
(I didn't want to sing because I'm not a good singer, but) I was forced to sing. (英語にやくして下さい) (下手だから歌いたくなかったのに)歌を歌わされました。 (日本語にやくして下さい)
(I don't want ot eat it because I don't like meat, but) I am (always) made to eat meat. (英語にやくして下さい) (きらいだから食べたくないんですが、いつも)肉を食べさせラマ巣。 (日本語にやくして下さい)
Causautive-passive ru-verb conjugation drop -ru and add -sase-rare-ru.
Causautive-passive u-verb conjugation drop -u and add -asare-ru. For す-ending verbs, drop -u and add -ase-rare-ru
食べる (give the causative-passive conjugation) 食べさせられる (give the plain form)
話す (give the causative-passive conjugation) 話させられる (give the plain form)
書く (give the causative-passive conjugation) 書かされる (give the plain form)
読む (give the causative-passive conjugation) 読まされる (give the plain form)
およぐ (give the causative-passive conjugation) およがされる (give the plain form)
買う (give the causative-passive conjugation) 買わされる (give the plain form)
立つ (give the causative-passive conjugation) 立たされる (give the plain form)
とる (give the causative-passive conjugation) とらされる (give the plain form)
あそぶ (give the causative-passive conjugation) あそばされる (give the plain form)
する (give the causative-passive conjugation) させられる (give the plain form)
くる (give the causative-passive conjugation) こさせられる (give the plain form)
Original causative-passive form 書かせられる. More transparently a combination, and gramatically correct, but 書かされる type is more common.
Original causative-passive form, note for review ru-verb and す-ending verb conjugation is combination of forms: -(s)ase-rare, but u-verbs not ending in す are a contracted for -asare. (give the plain form)
私は彼女に車をあらわされました。(Give the explanation and translation) (puppet)は(puppet master)に(action) (Translation: I was tricked by my girlfriend into washing her car.)
Causative-passive, particles "puppet" marked by は, が, (も?). "puppet master" usually goes with に. "action" includes a causative-passive form verb.
Causative-passive, brief explanation for review The puppet is forced into performing an action by the puppet master, who wields power over, and manipulates, the puppet.
Causative-passive versus causative actor placement comparison 私は友だちに (causative-passive) 友だちは私に (causative) 宿題を手つだわされました。
Causative-passive versus plain comparison. ゆみはお母さんに勉強させられました。(Yumi was ordered by her mother to study.) versus ゆみは勉強しました。(Yumi studied.) ("puppet master" added and conjugation changed to causative-passive.)
AてもB B, even if A
ても versus たら comparison 1 雨がふっても、ピクニックに行きます。(I will go on a picnic even if it rains.) versus 雨がふったら、ピクニックに行きません。(I will not go on a picnic if it rains.)
ても versus たら comparison 2 あつくても、エアコンをつけません。(I will not turn on the air conditioner, even if it is hot.) versus あつかったら、エアコンをつけます。
ても versus たら comparison 3 子供でも、わかります。。(Even a child will get it.) versus 子供だったら、わかりません。(If you are a child, you will not get it.)
~ても formation, verbs Add も to て form.
~ても formation, い-adjectives Add も to て form.
~ても formation, な-adjectives Add でも.
~ても formation, nouns Add でも.
~ても formation, negative for all types Change ない to なくて and add も.
~ても formation, note for review verb たら and ても forms similar, but adjective and noun たら and でも forms look very different.
~ても clause tense There is none. Present or past tense can be in following clause.
I went to class every day, even if it rained. 私は、雨がふっていても、毎日、授業に行きました。
I would have taken the Japanese class, even if it could have been difficult. 日本語の授業がむずかしくても、とったでしょう。
~ことにする "decide to do"
ことにする use with verbs, either positive or negative. Decide to do or not to do.
車を買うことにしました。 (英語にやくして下さい) We have decided to buy a car. (日本語にやくして下さい)
あの人がかわいそうだから、あまり、文くを言わないことにします。 (英語にやくして下さい) I will not make too many complaints. I am feeling sorry for him already。 (日本語にやくして下さい)
ことにしよう Replaces volitional form. Suggests an activity while implying that you have deliberated about it.
ことにしよう, partial example 行くことにしよう replaces 行こう
今年の夏はベトナムに行くことにしよう (英語にやくして下さい) Let's take the plunge. Let's go to Vietnam this summer. (日本語にやくして下さい)
ことにしている "do something as a regular practice."
ことにしている, further explanation "You have made up your mind that you should do something and have stuck to that determination."
毎日十一時にねることにしています。 (英語にやくして下さい) I make it a rule to go to bed at eleven every night. (日本語にやくして下さい)
絶対におさけを飲まないことにしています。 (英語にやくして下さい) I have made this firm decision not to drink and have strictly followed it. (日本語にやくして下さい)
~まで A まで means "till A."
まで, further explanation "A まで B" is the description of the change that coincides or causes the end of B. The A, therefore, is usually a verb of the "change" kind.
まで, conjugation Always positive present tense before まで.
晴れるまで、きっ茶店でコーヒーを飲みながら、待ちます。 (英語にやくして下さい) I will wait in the coffee shop, drinking coffee, till it clears up. (日本語にやくして下さい)
日本語が上手になるまで、国に帰りません。 (英語にやくして下さい) I will not go back to my country, till I become fluent in Japanese (日本語にやくして下さい)
まで, subject particles Subject of the first clause marked with が rather than は when different from the subject of the second clause.
赤ちゃんがねるまで、(私は)歌を歌ってあげます。 (英語にやくして下さい) I will sing a lullaby till the baby falls asleep. (日本語にやくして下さい)
まで, usage for past Possible, but first clause still in present tense. Second tense in past.
日本の生活にかれるまで、大へんでした。 (英語にやくして下さい) It was tough until I got used to living in Japan. (日本語にやくして下さい)
~かた ~方
~方 "The way in which an action is performed" or "how to do."
~方, formation Follows verb stem.
およぐ(方 form) およぎかた
考える(方 form) 考え方
およぎかた(意味) how to swim
考え方(意味) the way people think
漢字を読む(方 form) 漢字の読み方
はしを使う(方 form) はしの使い方
空港に行く(方 form) 空港の行き方
おふろに入る(方 form) おふろの入り方
漢字の読み方(意味) how to read the kanji; pronunciation
はしの使い方(意味) how to use chopsticks
空港の行き方(意味) how to go to the airport
おふろの入り方(意味) how to take a bath
お風ろ(ひらがな) おふろ(漢字)
~方, compound verbs (e.g. 勉強する) replace object particle with の and put のし方 after the verb noun
日本語を勉強する(方 form) 日本語の勉強のし方
ホテルをよやくする(方 form) ホテルをよやくのし方
~方, part of speech a noun
~方, particles that follow は and を, for example. Because it is a noun.
たけしさんのスパゲッティの食べ方はおもしろいです。 (英語にやくして下さい) The way in which Takeshi eats spaghetti is interesting. (日本語にやくして下さい)
すみません。この漢字の書き方を教えていただけませんか。 (英語にやくして下さい) Excuse me, can you tell me how to write this kanji? (日本語にやくして下さい)
Created by: ncommons