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Lesson 22 Grammar

QuestionAnswer
Causitive form. Either let or make somebody do something (two meanings). Interpretation is up to context.
Causative ru-verb conjugation drop -ru and add -sase-ru
Causative u-verb conjugation drop -u and add -ase-ru
u-verb with う after another vowel conjugation starts with わ
食べる (causative conjugation) 食べさせる (causative-to-normal conjugation)
行く (causative conjugation) 行かせる (causative-to-normal conjugation)
待つ (causative conjugation) 待たせる (causative-to-normal conjugation)
読む (causative conjugation) 読ませる (causative-to-normal conjugation)
およぐ (causative conjugation) およがせる (causative-to-normal conjugation)
かう (causative conjugation) かわせる (causative-to-normal conjugation)
話す (causative conjugation) 話させる (causative-to-normal conjugation)
死ぬ (causative conjugation) 死なせる (causative-to-normal conjugation)
とる (causative conjugation) とらせる (causative-to-normal conjugation)
あそぶ (causative conjugation) あそばせる (causative-to-normal conjugation)
くる (causative conjugation) こさせる (causative-to-normal conjugation)
する (causative conjugation) させる (causative-to-normal conjugation)
先生は学生に会話をおぼえさせました。(Give the explanation and translation) (director)は(cast)に(action) (Translation: The professor made the students memorize the dialogue.)
Causative, particles "director" marked by は, が, (も?). "cast" usually goes with に. "action" includes a causative form verb.
お父さんは子供に野さいをたべさせました。 The father made/let his child eat vegetables
お母さんは子供に本を読ませました。 The mother made/let her child read the book.
Causative, particles, part 2 cast gets を when: 1. caused action is a reflex (including crying and laughing), and 2. When the causative verb did not originally call for を.
I accidentally made the child cry. (example, 日本語にやくして下さい) 私はその子供をなかせてしまいました。 (example, 英語にやくして下さい)
Mr. Allen made funny movies and made everyone laugh. (example, 日本語にやくして下さい) アレンさんはおもしろい映画を作ってみんあを笑わせました。 (example, 英語にやくして下さい)
The professor made me go to the bathroom. (example, 日本語にやくして下さい) 先生は私をトイレにきあせました。 (example, 英語にやくして下さい)
That person made me sit there. (example, 日本語にやくして下さい) その人は私をそこにすわらせました。 (example, 英語にやくして下さい)
Example of incorrect use of を to mark the cast. (Please review) X両親は私を本を読ませました。My parents made me read books. (を already needed for 本, can't be used for cast)
Following a causative verb with てあげる, てくれる, or てもらう Almost always the "let" interpretation.
先生は私に英語を話させてくれませんでした。 The professor did not allow me to speak in English.
私は自分の子供に好きなことをさせてあげるつもりです。 I think I will let my children do what they love.
causative + てください Ask for permission to do something or volunteer to do something.
私にこの仕事をやらせてください。 Please let me do this job.
なさい sentence format verb stem + なさい
なさい use command with strong implication that you are talking down to somebody, or that you think you are more mature, know better, and should be obeyed.
うちに毎日電話しなさい。 Call home every day.
かっこの中に単語を入れなさい。 Fill in the blanks with a word.
もんくを言うのをやめなさい Stop complaining.
なさい negative can use のをやめなさい to tell someone "don't do"
ば form Used in sentences of form "Clause A [ば form word] Clause B" Clause A describes the condition provided that Clause B will follow.
ば form use restrictions Usually used when the condition "A" guarantees a good result in "B."
ば form use restrictions, alternative use たら
ば form use restrictions, example 1 (correct). 走れば、電車にまにあいます。If I run, I will be able to catch the train. 2 (incorrect). 歩けば、電車に遅れます。If I walk, I will be late for the train. 3 (reason). Incorrect because negative implication.
ば form use restrictions, workaround counter the negative implication in a later part of the sentence
ば form use restrictions, workaround, example 歩けば電車に遅れるのはわかっていました。I knew that I would be late for the train if I walked.
ば positive form for verbs from dictionary form drop -u and replace with -eba
ば negative form for verbs from negative short form drop い from ない and add ければ (so, なければ)
ば form for い-adjectives drop い and replace with ければ
ば form for negative predicates in general drop い from ない and replace with なければ
ば form for な-adjectives and nouns なら or であれば after plain na-adjective or noun
車があれば、いろいろな所に行けます。 If you have a car, you can go to various places.
かぎをかけておけば、どろぼうに入れません。 If you lock the doors and windows, you won't have your apartment broken into.
大家さんに言わなければ、わかりませんよ。 If you do not tell the landlord, he will never find that out.
ば form common use advising the first part of the sentence. Often the second part contains expressions like だいじょうぶです or いいんです.
このくすりを飲めばだいじょうぶです。 You will be okay, if you take this medicine.
せんせいにきけばいいんです。 All you have to do is ask the teacher. (If you ask, everything will be fine.)
のに Used in sentences of format A のに B where B happens despite A.
のに conjugation Part before A is short form with な for な-adjectives or nouns.
のに barred uses Cannot use for non-factual sentences. Only connects facts.
この会社はお金があるのに、きゅうりょうは安いです。(example, 英語にやくして下さい) This company is rich, but its workers salarie are low. (example, 日本語にやくして下さい)
家にいるのに、電話に出ない。(example, 英語にやくして下さい) She is home but does not answer the phone (example, 日本語にやくして下さい)
田中さんは親切なのに、山田さんは田中さんがきらいです。(example, 英語にやくして下さい) Mr. Tanaka is nice, but Ms. Yamada does not like her. (example, 日本語にやくして下さい)
大きい問題なのに、あの人はだれにもそうだんしません。(example, 英語にやくして下さい) It is a big issue, but he does not consult with anybody. (example, 日本語にやくして下さい)
のに unacceptable use example 1 1 (wrong). 日本語が少しむずかしいのに、これを読んでください。This japanese is a little difficult, but please read it. 2 (right). 日本語が少しむずかしいですが、これを読んでください。
のに unacceptable use example 2 1 (wrong). あまりおいしそうじゃないのに、ここで食べましょう。The food does not look very promising, but let's eat here. 2 (right). あまりおいしそうじゃないけど、ここで食べましょう。
~のような/~のように "like"
noun Aのようなnoun B A is like/similar to B.
noun Aのようなnoun B, another phrasing A has the same quality or appearance as B, or is an example of B.
私はかまくらのような町が好きです。(example, 英語にやくして下さい) I like towns like Kamakura. (example, 日本語にやくして下さい)
私はアウンサン・スーチーのような人になりたいです。(example, 英語にやくして下さい) I want to be a person like Aung San Suu Kyi, the Burmese democracy leader. (example, 日本語にやくして下さい)
noun Aのように "An action is done in the same way as A" or "a characteristic is comparable to A."
メアリーさんは魚のように上手におよげます。(example, 英語にやくして下さい) Mary can swim very well, just like a fish. (example, 日本語にやくして下さい)
アントニオさんはそんごくうのように強いです。(example, 英語にやくして下さい) Antonio is strong like Son Goku. (example, 日本語にやくして下さい)
この町は夜のはかばのようにしずかです。(example, 英語にやくして下さい) This town is as quiet as a graveyard at night. (example, 日本語にやくして下さい)
はか場 はかば
はかば graveyard
みたい versus ような/ように can be used in the same way as ような/ように. However, の does not come before it. (example, 日本語にやくして下さい)
あの人はマゼー・テレサみたいな人です。(example, 英語にやくして下さい) She is a person just like Mother Teresa. (example, 日本語にやくして下さい)
あの人はこわれたレコードみたいに同じことを言います。(example, 英語にやくして下さい) She says the same thing over and over again, just like a broken vinyl record. (example, 日本語にやくして下さい)
Created by: ncommons