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Lesson 20 Grammar

Extra-modest expressions Expressions used to speak modestly of our own actions, to be modest and respectful, “to show an extra amount of deference to the listener.” Having one of these verbs is like ending a sentence with words like sir or ma’am.
Extra-modest expressions, common conjugations Almost always long form, because the purpose of using them is to be polite to the person you are talking to. Typically used with the more stilted first-person word わたくしrather than the normal わたし.
Extra-modest expressions, example situation very formal occasions.
Extra-modest expressions, example situation, examples job interview.
私は来年も日本に降ります。 (translate) I will be in Japan next year, too, sir/ma’am.
私は今年の六月に大学を卒業いたしました。 (translate) I graduated from college this June, sir/ma’am.
私は一年間二言後を勉強しております。 (translate) I have been studying Japanese for a year.
私は日本のぶんかにきょうみがございます。 (translate) I am interested in the Japanese culture.
Extra-modest expressions, further uses Can be used to talk modestly about your own family or about the company you work for. Frequently used by people in business to talk to customers. Thus you hear many of them used in public address announcments, and in the speech of shop clerks.
電車がまいります。 (translate) A train is pulling in.
おてあらいはにかいでございます。 (translate) The bathroom is on the second floor.
Extra-modest expressions, note on ございます and でごいます Very stylized and you rarely hear them out of formal business-related situations.
Extra-modest expressions, what you can’t do describe actions done by people outside of your group or by the person you are talking to, because it puts them in a modest light. (You can’t be modest for someone else.)
Extra-modest expressions, what you can’t do, example, “Are you coming to school tomorrow, Professor?” 先生は明日学校にまりますか。(WRONG)
いる(extra-modest conjugations) おります(reverse extra-modest conjugations)
行く(extra-modest conjugations) まいります(reverse extra-modest conjugations)
来る(extra-modest conjugations) まいります(reverse extra-modest conjugations)
言う(extra-modest conjugations) もうします(reverse extra-modest conjugations)
する(extra-modest conjugations) いたします(reverse extra-modest conjugations)
食べる(extra-modest conjugations) いただきます(reverse extra-modest conjugations)
飲む(extra-modest conjugations) いただきます(reverse extra-modest conjugations)
ある(extra-modest conjugations) ございます(reverse extra-modest conjugations)
~ている(extra-modest conjugations) ~ております(reverse extra-modest conjugations)
~です(extra-modest conjugations) ~でございます(reverse extra-modest conjugations)
いる(extra-modest expression plain forms) おる(reverse extra-modest expression plain forms)
行く(extra-modest expression plain forms) まいる(reverse extra-modest expression plain forms)
来る(extra-modest expression plain forms) まいる(reverse extra-modest expression plain forms)
言う(extra-modest expression plain forms) もうする(reverse extra-modest expression plain forms)
する(extra-modest expression plain forms) いたす(reverse extra-modest expression plain forms)
食べる(extra-modest expression plain forms) いただく(reverse extra-modest expression plain forms)
飲む(extra-modest expression plain forms) いただく(reverse extra-modest expression plain forms)
ある(extra-modest expression plain forms) ござる(reverse extra-modest expression plain forms)
~ている(extra-modest expression plain forms) ~ておる(reverse extra-modest expression plain forms)
~です(extra-modest expression plain forms) ~でござる(reverse extra-modest expression plain forms)
おる(Extra-modest expression plain form to long form) おります(Extra-modest expression long form to plain form)
まいる(Extra-modest expression plain form to long form) まいります(Extra-modest expression long form to plain form)
もうする(Extra-modest expression plain form to long form) もうします(Extra-modest expression long form to plain form)
いたす(Extra-modest expression plain form to long form) いたします(Extra-modest expression long form to plain form)
いただく(Extra-modest expression plain form to long form) いただきます(Extra-modest expression long form to plain form)
ござる(Extra-modest expression plain form to long form) ございます(Extra-modest expression long form to plain form)
~ておる(Extra-modest expression plain form to long form) ~ております(Extra-modest expression long form to plain form)
~でござる(Extra-modest expression plain form to long form) ~でござる(Extra-modest expression long form to plain form)
Humble Expressions ”When you do something out of respect for somebody, you can sometimes describe your action using a verb in the humble pattern . . .”
I (humbly) do . . . お + stem + する
Humble Expressions, which verbs Not all, so it is better to stick to ones you know can be used.
私はこのう先生にお会いしました。(English translation) I (humbly) met my professor yesterday.
私は先生日本をお貸しするつもりです。(English translation) I intend to (humbly) lend my professor a book.
私は先生にじしょをお借りしました。(English translation) I borrowed a dictionary from my professor (and feel very obliged).
Humble Expressions, する compound verbs add the polite prefix for the specific noun, not just お.
Humble Expressions, verbs with special conjugations もらう, あげる
Humble Expressions, special verb うかがう
私は先生にこの本をいただきました。(English translation) I (humbly) received this book from my professor.
私は先生に漢字を教えていただきました。(English translation) I (humbly) had my professor teach me kanji.
私は先生に花をさしあげます。(English translation) I will (humbly) give my professor flowers.
私は先生のおたくにうかがいました。(English translation) I (humbly) visited my professor’s house.
私は先生にテストについてうかがいました。(English translation) I (humbly) asked my professor about the exam.
(私はあなたを)えきまでおおくりします。(English translation) I will (humbly) walk you to the station.
会います(Humble conjugations) お会いにします(Reverse humble conjugations)
貸します(Humble conjugations) お貸しします(Reverse humble conjugations)
借ります(Humble conjugations) お借りします(Reverse humble conjugations)
しょうかいします(Humble conjugations) ごしょうかいします(Reverse humble conjugations)
あんないします(Humble conjugations) ごあんないします(Reverse humble conjugations)
せつめいします(Humble conjugations) ごせつめいします(Reverse humble conjugations)
でんわします(Humble conjugations) おでんわします(Reverse humble conjugations)
もらいます(Humble conjugations) いただきます(Reverse humble conjugations)
あげます(Humble conjugations) さしあげます(Reverse humble conjugations)
おくります(Humble conjugations) おおくりします(Reverse humble conjugations)
Extra-modest and humble, difference stated by the book extra-modest is for person you are talking to. Humble is for someone in the event you are describing.
Extra-modest and humble, fact not in the book They are the same, actually.
Extra-modest and humble, conjugation note Never conjugate in plain form, even in grammar structures. Sounds like a samurai.
Honorific vs extra-modest vs humble Honorific promotes subject, extra-modest expressions talk modestly of what you do, humble expressions demote the subject and raise the profile of someone else.
~てさしあげる don’t use, because some speakers think the idea that you are doing a service to someone is insolent, and talking about it humbly is a façade. Use “お + stem + する” instead.
Humble expressions, using not for yourself Can be used for “your people,” such as a member of your family or another worker at the company you work for, humbly performing an action indeferences to somebody outside the group.
私の父はおきゃくさんにお茶をおいれしました。(English translation) My father (humbly) served the guest tea.
私の母はだいとうりょうに手紙をいただきました。(English translation) My mother (humbly) received a letter from the President.
~ないで When you do something without doing something else, specifies what you did not do.
~ないで, tense ない used for both past and present
verb + ないで (in English) without doing x
きのうの夜は、ねないで、勉強しました。(Translate) Last night, I studied without getting any sleep.
じしょを使わないで、新聞を読みます。(Translate) I read a newspaper without using dictionaries.
Questions within larger sentences expresses ideas such as “I don’t know when the test is” and “I don’t remember whether Mary came to the party.”
山下先生はきのう何を食べたかおぼえていません。(English Translation) Professor Yamashita does not remember what he ate yesterday.
メアリーさんがどこに住んでいるか知っていますか。(English Translation) Do you know where Mary lives?
週末、旅行に行くかどうかきめましょう。(English Translation) Let’s decide whether we will go on a trip this weekend.
Questions within larger sentences, conjugation short form, but だ usually dropped from nouns andな-adjectives.
Questions within larger sentences, format Question-word か or Yes/no question かどうか then わかりません, 知っています, etc.
だれが一ばん上手かわかりません。(English translation) I do not know who is the best.
あの人が学生かどうかわかりません。(English translation) I do not know if that person is a student.
Questions within larger sentences, subject particle Often use the particle が where は is expected.
たけしさんは何を食べましたか。(Answer sentence that includes a question inside of it) 私はたけしさんが何を食べたか知っています。
Name という item When you want to talk about a person or a thing that goes by a certain name, but if you believe the person you are talking to is not familiar with it, you can use the following pattern.
(name) という (item (in English)) (item called “(name)”
ポチといういぬ(をかっていました。)(translate) (I used to have) a dog called “Pochi.”
「花」という歌(を知っていますか。)(translate) (Do you know) a song called “Hana”?
Verb stem + やすい describes something that is easy to do.
~やすい adjective forming suffix that indicates that something is “easy-to-do.”
~やすい,conjugation conjugates like an い-adjective
使う with やすい 使いやすい
このでんしじしょは使いやすいです。(English translation) This electric dictionary is easy to use.
読む with やすい 読みやすい
この本は読みやすかったです。(English translation) This book was easy to read.
Verb stem + にくい describes something that is hard to do
~にくい い-adjective forming suffix that indicates that something is “hard-to-do.”
食べる with にくい 食べにくい
ほねが多いので、魚は食べにくいです。(English translation) Fish are hard to eat, because they have many bones.
~やすい/にくい, subject can sometimes be a place where it is easy/difficult to do something in, or a tool that it is easy/difficult to do something with, etc.
この町はとても住みやすいです。(English translation) This town is quite liveable.
このグラスは飲みにくいです。(English translation) This glass is hard to drink from.
~やすい/にくい, specifics on use focus on the psychological ease or difficulty of doing something when you use them with verbs describing actions. So, odd to use when talking about a physical or statistical success rate.
漢字はおぼえにくい。vs漢字をおぼえるのはむずかしい。(English translation and implication) Kanji is hard to memorize. (= I have kanji anxieties) vs It is hard to memorize kanji. (=too complicated, too many)
このざっしは買いにくい。vsこのざっしを買うのはむずかしい。(English translation and implication) It is embarrassing to buy this magazine. (=you are unwilling) vs This magazine is hard to buy. (=small circulation; hard to come by)
Created by: ncommons