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Lesson 19 Grammar

QuestionAnswer
いる(Normal-to-honorific conjugation) いらっしゃる(Honorific-to-normal conjugation)
行く(Normal-to-honorific conjugation) いらっしゃる(Honorific-to-normal conjugation)
来る(Normal-to-honorific conjugation) いらっしゃる(Honorific-to-normal conjugation)
見る(Normal-to-honorific conjugation) ごらんになる(Honorific-to-normal conjugation)
言う(Normal-to-honorific conjugation) おっしゃる(Honorific-to-normal conjugation)
する(Normal-to-honorific conjugation) なさる(Honorific-to-normal conjugation)
食べる(Normal-to-honorific conjugation) めしあがる(Honorific-to-normal conjugation)
飲む(Normal-to-honorific conjugation) めしあがる(Honorific-to-normal conjugation)
くれる(Normal-to-honorific conjugation) くださる(Honorific-to-normal conjugation)
ねる(Normal-to-honorific conjugation) お休みになる(Honorific-to-normal conjugation)
~ている(Normal-to-honorific conjugation) ~ていらっしゃる (Honorific-to-normal conjugation)
If has ている helping verb (Normal-to-honorific conjugation) ~ている to ~ていらっしゃる
All verbs (Normal-to-honorific conjugation) お + verb stem + になる otherwise.
貸す(Normal-to-honorific conjugation) お貸しになる(Honorific-to-normal conjugation)
書く(Normal-to-honorific conjugation) お書きになる(Honorific-to-normal conjugation)
さがす(Normal-to-honorific conjugation) おさがしになる(Honorific-to-normal conjugation)
おくる(Normal-to-honorific conjugation) おおくりになる(Honorific-to-normal conjugation)
みがく(Normal-to-honorific conjugation) おみがきになる(Honorific-to-normal conjugation)
あむ(Normal-to-honorific conjugation) おあみになる(Honorific-to-normal conjugation)
いらっしゃる(Honorific plain-to-long conjugations) いらっしゃいます(Honorific long-to-plain conjugations)
ごらんになる(Honorific plain-to-long conjugations) ごらんになります(Honorific long-to-plain conjugations)
おっしゃる(Honorific plain-to-long conjugations) おっしゃいます(Honorific long-to-plain conjugations)
なさる(Honorific plain-to-long conjugations) なさいます(Honorific long-to-plain conjugations)
めしあがる(Honorific plain-to-long conjugations) めしあがります(Honorific long-to-plain conjugations)
くださる(Honorific plain-to-long conjugations) くださいます(Honorific long-to-plain conjugations)
お休みになる(Honorific plain-to-long conjugations) お休みになります(Honorific long-to-plain conjugations)
~ていらっしゃる(Honorific plain-to-long conjugations) ~ていらっしゃるいます(Honorific long-to-plain conjugations)
お帰りになる(Honorific plain-to-long conjugations) お帰りになります(Honorific long-to-plain conjugations)
お会いになる(Honorific plain-to-long conjugations) お会いになります(Honorific long-to-plain conjugations)
おおよぎになる(Honorific plain-to-long conjugations) おおよぎになります(Honorific long-to-plain conjugations)
いらっしゃる(Honorific form kanji) none specified by Genki (Honorific form kanji-to-hiragana)
ごらんになる(Honorific form kanji) ご覧になる (Honorific form kanji-to-hiragana)
おっしゃる(Honorific form kanji) none specified by Genki (Honorific form kanji-to-hiragana)
なさる(Honorific form kanji) none specified by Genki (Honorific form kanji-to-hiragana)
めしあがる(Honorific form kanji) 召し上がる (Honorific form kanji-to-hiragana)
くださる(Honorific form kanji) none specified by Genki (Honorific form kanji-to-hiragana)
おやすみになる(Honorific form kanji) お休みになる (Honorific form kanji-to-hiragana)
~ていらっしゃる(Honorific form kanji) none specified by Genki (Honorific form kanji-to-hiragana)
Honorific form ”… special verbs to describe the actions of people whom you respect. … they bestow honor on, or exalt, the person performing the activities.”
Honorific form, note on conjugations of special verbs Some of the special u-verb honorific verbs don’t conjugate regularly. (paraphrase)
Honorific form, effect on sentence meaning can make sentences mean that somebody graciously does something. (paraphrase)
Honorific form, who to use them for Used for people “higher up in the social hierarchy” or “whom you do not know very well, especially when addressing them directly.” Never use for yourself, because you aren’t supposed to compliment your own thoughtfulness.
先生は今日学校にいっらしゃいません。(Translate to English) The professor will (graciously) not go to/come to/be at the school. (three-way ambiguous)
いっらしゃいません (meaning) 行きません/来ません/いません
何をめしあがりますか。(Translate to English) What will you (graciously) eat/drink?
田中さんのお母さんがこの本をくださいました。(Translate to English) Ms. Tanaka’s mother (graciously) gave me this book.
先生は自分で料理なさるそうです。(Translate to English) I hear that the professor (graciously) cooks for himself.
しんぱいなさらないでください。(Translate to English) Please don’t (graciously) worry.
先生はテレビをごらんになっています。(Translate to English) The professor is (graciously) watching TV.
Honorific form, note on form for verbs without special honorific forms If has ている helping verb
先生は電話で話していらっしゃいます。(translate to English) The professor is (graciously) talking on the phone.
先生は電話で話していらっしゃいます。(non-honorific original verb expression) 話しています
先生はつかれていらっしゃるみたいです。(translate to English) It appears that the professor is (graciously) tired.
先生はつかれていらっしゃるみたいです。(non-honorific original verb expression) つかれているみたいです
先生はもうお帰りになりました。(translate to English) The professor has already (graciously) gone home.
先生はもうお帰りになりました。(non-honorific original verb expression) 帰りました
このざっしをお読みになったことがありますか。(translate to English) Have you ever (graciously) read this magazine?
このざっしをお読みになったことがありますか。(non-honorific original verb expression) 読んだことがありますか
どうぞお使いになってください。(translate to English) Please (graciously) use it
どうぞお使いになってください。(non-honorific original verb expression) 使ってください
Honorific form, changes for verbs with post-predicate experssions except for ている mostly the post-predicate expression sames the same and the verb changes.
Honorific form, ている for verbs with special forms changing to the special form “generally takes priority over ていらっしゃる,” but the ていらっしゃる form is also considered acceptable.
Giving respectful advice を + verb stem + ください
Giving respectful advice common places to hear it
きっぽをとりください (translate to English) Please take a ticket.
きっぽをとりください (source verb) とる
せつめいをお読みください。(translate to English) Please read the instruction.
せつめいをお読みください。(source verb) 読む
Giving respectful advice, elaboration better to consider courteously phrased commands rather than requests despite the presenceください (paraphrase).
Giving respectful advice, who it can be used for When somebody tells you を + verb stem + くださいyou are being encouraged to perform the actions for your own good.
Giving respectful advice, who it can be used for, example, “Please take the salt (and pass it to me).” Can’t use しおをおとりください. Better to use しおをとっていただけませんか。
Giving respectful advice, する compound verbs Most noun parts take ご rather than お. Depends on the noun. Also, nouns serve as stems, so just the noun with the politeness marker and ください.
Giving respectful advice, compound honorific verbs になる is dropped. Non-compound honorific verbs have stems based on their long-form conjugation.
ご注意ください (translate to English) Please watch out.
ご注意ください (source verb) ちゅういする
ごらんください (translate to English) Please look.
ごらんください (source verb) ごらんになる
おめしあがりください (translate to English) Please help yourself
おめしあがりください (source verb) めしあがる
お休みください (translate to English) Please have a good rest.
お休みください (source verb) お休みになる
~てくれてありがとう Give thanks to someone while specifying what for.
~てくれてありがとう, form verb te-form + くれてありがとう
~てくれてありがとう, form, translation to English Thank you for doing . . .
てつだってくれてありがとう。(translate to English) Thank you for helping me out.
~てくれてありがとう, honorific version te-form + くださってありがとうございました。
すいせんじょうを書いてくださってありがとうございました。(Translate to English) Thank you for writing a letter of recommendation for me.
~てくれてありがとう, another use you can thank someone for “being such-and-such a person.”
~てくれてありがとう, another use, form でいる instead of です.
いい友だちでいてくれてありがとう。(translate) Thank you for being a good friend.
~てよかったです means “I’m glad that such and such is/was the case.”
~てよかったです, usage note you can mention something in the negative by using the negative te-form, なくて, before よかったです.
~てよかったです, form, translation to English I am glad that . . .
日本を勉強してよかったです。 (translate) I’m glad that I have studied Japanese.
メアリーさんが元気になってよかったです。(translate) I’m glad that Mary got well.
きのうのパーティーに行かなくてよかったです。 (translate) I’m glad that I did not go to the party yesterday.
~はずです It is supposed to be the case . . .
~はずです, how to use add onto a sentence ending in the short form.
今日は日曜日だから、ぎんこうはしまっているはずです(translation) Banks must be closed, because today is a Sunday.
きのうメアリーさんはどこにも行かなかったはずです。(translation) I believe that Mary did not go anywhere yesterday.
~はずです, elaboration What you believe is true or likely, though you lack conclusive evidence. It is used when situatiosn surrounding the case and/or our common sense point naturally to such a belief.
~はずです, elaboration 2 ~はずです cannot be used in a situation in which you are “supposed” to do something because of duty, responsibility, or law.
~はずです, conjugation note Can be turned into the past tense to describe something that was supposed to have been the case but which actually turned out otherwise.
~はずです, conjugation note, form はずでした。The part before はずです stays in the present tense.
先週電話をもらうはずでしたが、電話がありませんでした。(translate) I was supposed to receive a phone call last week, but I did not.
~はずです, other possible uses Can be used with adjectives and nouns in addition to verbs.
~はずです, other possible uses, い-adjective conjugation おもしろいはずです
~はずです, other possible uses, な-adjective conjugation 元気なはずです
~はずです, other possible uses, noun conjugation 日本人のはずです
~はずです, negative conjugations verbs in the negative form can come before はずです。If はずがありません or はずがない are used, that means something is inconceivable
あの人がうそをつくはずがありません。(translation) I cannot imagine that the person would tell a lie.
honorific forms for nouns and adjectives ”. . .お or ご. お is usually used with words that originated in Japanese and ご with words borrowed from Chinese.” There are also special vocabulary items for some words.
名前 お名前
仕事 お仕事
好き お好き
元気 お元気
たばこ おたばこ
いそがしい おいそがしい
りょうしん ごりょうしん
きょうだい ごきょうだい
びょうき ごびょうき
しゅじん ごしゅじん
しんせつ ごしんせつ
家(いえ) おたく
どこ どちら
こども お子さん
どうですか いかがですか
だれ どなた/どちら様
Honorific forms for nouns and adjectives, use limitation cannot be used when you refer to yourself, your family, or the group you belong to.
Honorific forms for nouns and adjectives, example dialogue A : ごりょうしんはお元気ですか。 (How are your parents) B : はい。おかげさまでげんきです。 (Thanks to you, they are fine.) NOT おげんきです。 in the reply.
たら in polite speech In honorific speech, たら also follows the long form.
たら in polite speech, form ます to ましたら
おきまりになりましたらおよぎください。(translate) Please let us know when you are ready to order.
それで ”and therefore” (to introduce the consequence of what comes before)
電車が来ませんでした。それで、ちこくしました。(translate) Trains didn’t’ come. Therefore, I was late for class.
そして ”and last but not least” (to say something remarkable)
スーさんはかん国語と英語が話せます。そして、日本語も話せます。(translate) Sue speaks Korean and English. And believe it or not, Japanese too.
それから ”and then” (to add an item that comes later in time or in the order of importance)
京ととならにいきました。それから、大さかにも行きました。 (translate) I went ot Kyoto and Nara. And then I also went to Osaka.
Created by: ncommons