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Lesson 18 Grammar

transitive verb verbs describing actions done by people
intransitive verb verbs describing "changes that things or people undergo."
開ける transitive or intransitive transitive
しめる transitive or intransitive transitive
入れる transitive or intransitive transitive
出す transitive or intransitive transitive
つける transitive or intransitive transitive
けす transitive or intransitive transitive
こわす transitive or intransitive transitive
よごす transitive or intransitive transitive
おとす transitive or intransitive transitive
わかす transitive or intransitive transitive
開く transitive or intransitive intransitive
しまる transitive or intransitive intransitive
入る transitive or intransitive intransitive
出る transitive or intransitive intransitive
つく transitive or intransitive intransitive
きえる transitive or intransitive intransitive
こわれる transitive or intransitive intransitive
よごれる transitive or intransitive intransitive
おちる transitive or intransitive intransitive
わく transitive or intransitive intransitive
開ける meaning open something
しめる meaning close something
入れる meaning put something in
出す meaning take something out
つける meaning turn something off
けす meaning turn something off; extinguish something
こわす meaning break something
よごす meaning make something dirty
おとす meaning drop something
わかす meaning boil water
開く meaning something opens
しまる meaning something closes
入る meaning something goes inside
出る meaning something goes out
つく meaning something goes on
きえる meaning something goes off
こわれる meaning something breaks
よごれる meaning something becomes dirty
おちる meaning something drops
わく meaning water boils
開ける intransitive version 開く
しめる intransitive version しまる
入れる intransitive version 入る
出す intransitive version 出る
つける intransitive version つく
けす intransitive version きえる
こわす intransitive version こわれる
よごす intransitive version よごれる
おとす intransitive version おちる
わかす intransitive version わく
開く transitive version 開ける
しまる transitive version しめる
入る transitive version 入れる
出る transitive version 出す
つく transitive version つける
きえる transitive version けす
こわれる transitive version こわす
よごれる transitive version よごす
おちる transitive version おとす
わく transitive version わかす
transitive verb sentences "calls for both the subject (agent) and the object (thing that is worked on)."
intransitive verb sentences "Intransitive verbs call only for the subject (thing thing or the person that goes through the change)."
transitive verb vs intransitive verb sentences "calls for both the subject (agent) and the object (thing that is worked on). Intransitive verbs call only for the subject (thing thing or the person that goes through the change)."
transitive sentence: たけしさんが電気をつけました。 (Give the intransitive version) intransitive sentence: 電気がつきました
transitive sentence: たけしさんがおゆをわかしました。 (Give the intransitive version) intransitive sentence: おゆがわきました。
transitive vs intransitive: ている "transitive verbs describe activities (so, actions in progress for ている), while intransitive verbs describe changes (so, resultant state for ている)"
transitivity, ている review example 1: スーさんは今、でんわでお母さんと話してます。 (English translation and type of phrase) "Sue is talking on the phone with her mother right now. (activity, action in progress)"
transitivity, ている review example: 山下先生は結婚しています。 (English translation and type of phrase) "Professor Yamashita is married. (change, resultant state)"
transitive sentence (ている1): ロバートさんはまどを開けています。 (Give the intransitive version) intransitive sentence (ている1): ドアが開いています。
transitive sentence (ている2): ともこさんは電気をけしています。 (Give the intransitive version) intransitive sentence (ている2): 電気はきえています。
transitive sentence (ている3): ゴジラが町をこわしています。 (Give the intransitive version) intransitive sentence (ている3): 町はこわれています。
transitivity (ている1): ロバートさんはまどを開けています。 (English translation) Robert is opening the windows.
transitivity (ている2): ドアが開いています。 (English translation) Doors are open./There's an open door.
transitivity (ている3): ともこさんは電気をけしています。 (English translation) Tomoko is turning the light off.
transitivity (ている4): テレビはきえています。 (English translation) The TV set is off.
transitivity (ている5): ゴジラが町をこわしています。 (English translation) "There goes Godzilla, destroying the city."
transitivity (ている6): このパソコンはこわれています。 (English translation) This computer is broken.
~てしまう Has two meanings relating to "the descrepancy between what we intend and what the world is like when it is left on its own."
~てしまう, first meaning Indicates that one “carries out with determinations” a plan described by the verb. It typically involves bringing something to a culmination point. You, in other words, do something completely, or finish doing something, or have something done.
本を読んでしまいました。 (English translation) I read the book completely./I finished reading the book.
~てしまう, second meaning “lack of premeditation or control over how things turn out.” This often comes with the sense of regret; something regrettable happens, or you do something which you did not intend to.
電車の中にかばんをわすれてしまいました。 (English translation) I inadvertently left my bag on the train.
宿題をわすれたので、先生はおこってしまいました。 (English translation) To my horror and sorrow, my professor got angry, because I had forgotten my homework.
~てしまう, interpretation: which meaning is it? May be ambiguous. Interpretation depends on the assumptions the speaker has when uttering it.
~てしまう, interpretation: reading the book example The example can be read as meaning “regrettably” just as easily if you read the book although you had not planned to, or knowing that it was wrong but unable to resist the temptation.
~てしまう, contraction in speech, ~てしまう ~ちゃう
~てしまう, contraction in speech, ~でしまう ~じゃう
~てしまう contraction in speech, example, "I lost my homework!" (Japanese translation) しゅくだいをなくしちゃった。
食べてしまいました (casual form) 食べちゃいました
食べてしまった (casual form) 食べちゃった
飲んでしまうました (casual form) 飲んじゃいました
飲んでしまった (casual form) 飲んじゃった
てしまう, note on regret Because します goes with the verb ‘te’-form, which is affirmative, it only gives us sentences meaning that something regrettable does or did happen.
てしまう, note on regret, examples of unacceptable uses In other words, we cannot express negated ideas with しまう such as “regrettably, x did not take place” or “unfortunately, I did not do x.”
~と The present tense short form of a predicate + と means whenever the situation described by the predicate holds, another thing happens. In most と sentences, the first clause describes the cause, and the second the effect.
私はその人と話すと元気になる。 (English translation) Whenever I talk with that person, I feel uplifted.
道がこんでいると時間がかかる。 (English translation) Whenever the streets are crowded, it takes longer to get there.
~と, form clause A と clause B。Whenever A happens, B happens too. (short, present)
~と, a more specific use Sometimes describes a cause-effect relationship between specific events.
メアリーさんが国に帰るとさびしくなります。 (English translation and card type) If Mary goes back home, we will be sad and lonely. (~と, a more specific use, example)
~と, second clause tense can be in the present or past tense.
~と, second clause tense, example, “When I was young, whenever winter arrived, I caught a cold.” 私は子供のとき、ふゆになるとかぜをひきました。
~と, sequence of events second clause must follow the event described in the first half of the sentence.
~と, sequence of events, incorrect example, 私はその人と話すときっさてんに行きます。 Whenever I talk with that person, we go to a coffee shop.
~と, adjectives in second clause usually expressed as a change.
~と, adjectives in second clause, less important note because adjectives are expressed as a change, it is very common to find in the second clause an い-adjective base + くなる, and a な-adjective base + になる
あきになると木が赤くなります。 (English translation) Whenever fall arrives, trees turn red.
夜になると町がしずかになります。 (English translation) Whenever night comes, the town becomes quiet.
~ながら connects two verbs to say that the two actions are performed at the same time.
~ながら, form follows a verb stem
私はいつも音楽を聞きながら日本語を勉強します。 (English translation) I always study Japanese while listening to music.
たけしさんは歌いながらせんたくをしています。 (English translation) Takeshi is doing laundry singing a song.
アルバイトをしながら学校に行くのたいへんです。 (English translation) It is not easy to go to school working part-time.
~ながら, limitation must be two actions performed by the same person. Cannot describe an action performed while another person does something.
~ばよかったです means ‘I wish I had had done’ or ‘I should have done’ something. You can use it to describe an alternative course of action you, to your great regret, did not take.
あの時、「あいしている」と言えばよかったです。 (English translation) I wish I had told her that I loved her.
彼女と別れなければよかったです。 (English translation) I should not have broken up with her.
~ばよかったです, conjugation information All verbs can be regularly turned into a ばよかったです sentence with no exception or irregularity. You form the ば-form on the basis of the present tense short forms.
~ばよかったです, positive conjugation -u becomes –eba.
~ばよかったです, negative conjugation い becomes ければ.
食べる (ば form) 食べれば
行く (ば form) 行けば
待つ (ば form) 待てば
買う (ば form) 買えば
する (ば form) すれば
くる (ば form) くれば
食べない (ば form) 食べなければ
行かない (ば form) 行かなければ
待たない (ば form) 待たなければ
買わない (ば form) 買わなければ
しない (ば form) しなければ
こない (ば form) こなければ
Created by: ncommons



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