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Anatomy Chapter 7

QuestionAnswer
The three types of muscle tissue are: Smooth, Skeletal, & Cardiac
That point of attachment that does not move when the muscle contracts is the: Origin
Each skeletal muscle is filled with two kinds of myofilaments called Myosin & Actin
The contractile unit of a muscle cell is the sarcomere
The term __________ is used to describe a muscle that directly performs a particular movement. Prime Mover
An explanation of how a skeletal muscle contracts is the sliding filament theory.
If a muscle is stimulated repeatedly without adequate rest, the strength of the contraction decreases, resulting in Fatigue
The minimal level of stimulation required to cause a fiber to contract is called the threshold stimulus.
A contraction in which muscle length remains the same but muscle tension increases is called a(n) isometric contraction.
Exercise may cause an increase in muscle size called hypertrophy.
Hypertrophy can be enhanced by Strength Training
The orbicularis oris muscle can be found in the Face
The external and internal oblique muscles can be found in the Trunk
The muscle that flexes the elbow is the biceps brachii.
Because this muscle is responsible for delivering blows during fights, it is often called the boxer’s muscle. triceps brachii
The movement that makes the angle between two bones at their joint smaller than it was at the beginning of the movement is called Flexion
Movement around a longitudinal axis is Rotation
The nervous system is divided into which two principal divisions? peripheral and central
The part of a neuron that transmits impulses away from the cell body is the Axon
Cells that conduct the impulses are called Neurons
The white, fatty substance that surrounds an axon is called Mylin
A signal conduction route to and from the central nervous system is a(n) Reflex Arc
Bundles of myelinated fibers make up the white matter of the nervous system
These chemicals allow neurons to communicate with each other. Neurotransmitters
The action potential seems to “jump” from node to node along a myelinated fiber. This type of impulse regeneration is called saltatory conduction
The inner protective covering of the brain is the meninges.
The three divisions of the brain that make up the brainstem are medulla oblongata, midbrain, and pons.
The second-largest part of the brain, located just below the posterior portion of the cerebrum, is the cerebellum.
Nerves that originate from the brain are called cranial nerves
How many pairs of spinal nerves are connected to the spinal cord? 31
Spinal cord tracts provide conduction paths to and from the brain. The tracts that conduct sensory impulses down the cord from the brain are called Desending Tracts
The large fluid-filled spaces within the brain are called the Ventricles
Formation of the cerebrospinal fluid occurs in the choroid plexus.
The limbic system integrates Emotions
Skin surface area supplied by a single spinal nerve is called a dermatome
A subdivision of the nervous system that regulates involuntary functions is the autonomic nervous system.
The autonomic nervous system can be divided into the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions.
The effect of sympathetic stimulation on the blood vessels in skeletal muscles is dilation.
This cranial nerve is responsible for the sense of smell. Olfactory
Axon terminals of autonomic neurons release either of two neurotransmitters. norepinephrine and acetylcholine
Acetylcholine binds to cholinergic receptors.
The sense organs are classified as General & Special
The innermost coat of the eyeball is the Retina
Specialized receptors found near the point of junction between tendons and muscles are called proprioceptors.
The Pacinian corpuscle senses pressure.
Cones are densely concentrated in the fovea centralis.
The substance that fills the chamber of the anterior cavity of the eye is the aqueous humor.
As people grow older, they tend to become farsighted. This condition is called hyperopia.
This type of receptor is found only in the eye. photoreceptor
The ear is divided into three anatomical parts. external ear, middle ear, inner ear
The tiny bones found in the middle ear are the ossicles
The sense organs involved in the sense of balance are found in the vestibule and the semicircular canals
The sense organs of taste are the Taste Buds
Gustatory cells are found in the Mouth
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