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Nuclear Fuel Cycles

Nuclear fuel cycles

Terms for Chapter 1Definition
Fusion light nuclei join to form a heavier nuclei
Fission reaction that makes a heavy nucleus split into lighter nuclei
Breeding Process that converts less reactive nuclei into more reactive ones
Radioisotopic heating Using energy from nuclear reactions for heating and electrical generators
Four categories of Nuclear fuel Fusion, Fission, Breeding and Radioisotopic heating
most common stellar reaction Proton Proton process (fusion)
Easiest Earth fusion reaction Deuterium and Tritium (DT)
generic fission reaction n+ X -> L +M +vnf
Asymmetric fission L doesn't equal to M
Symmetric fission L = M
three fission fuels U-235, U-233, Pu-239
Neutron Capture Reaction a nucleus absorbs one or more neutrons forming a heavier nucleus
Most popular radionuclides used as heat sources Plutonium 238
half life The time it takes for it to decay to one half of the initial value
Beta Particle Decay Changes a neutron in the parent into a proton and emits an energetic electron.
Alpha Particle Decay emits an alpha particle and the daughter has two less neutrons and two less protons
fissile nuclide nuclei that has a high probability of performing fission
fissionable nuclide any nuclei that can perform fission reactions, no matter how low their probability of it is
Nuclide notation A is Mass number
nuclide notation Z is atomic number
Reaction cross section The area with the largest probability of a reaction to occur
Nuclear Binding Energy Energy required to split a nucleus into its components
Binding energy per nucleon Divide the BE by the sum of all protons and neutrons of the element
Reaction Q-value the amount of energy released (if positive) and absorbed (if negative) of a nuclear reaction
Endergonic Reaction Q<0 endothermic
exoergic Reaction Q>0 exothermic
Threshold Energy The energy that the particle must supply for the reaction to occur
Coulombic Barrier The force that the nucleus and the incident particle (except gamma photon and neutrons) experience due to charge and distance.
uranium fuel cycle the sequence of processes involved in the production of nuclear power, starting with mining of uranium and ending with the final disposition of waste
surface mining, open pit mining large pits are dug intot he surface o the earth to reach the ore body. the least expensive mining method. 200 meters of the surface. 30% of Uranium comes from this
underground mining deeper than 200 meters. involves excavation of passaways. 50% of Uranium comes from this
shaft vertical mine entrancee
adit horizontal mine entrance
leach mining, in situ leaching liquid solvent is injected into the ore to dissolve the uranium. uranium is then pumped out. 20% of Uranium comes from this
steps in the uranium fuel cycle 1. Mining and Milling 2. Conversion 3. Enrichment 4. Fuel fabrication 5.Reactor operation 6.Interim Storage 7.reprocessing 9.immobilization disposal
Milling 1 Benefication 2. Leaching 3. Purification 4. Precipatation 5. drying
Benefication the treatment of mined material to improve its properties for subsequent processing
waste material in an ore gangue
valuable material in an ore concentrate
Created by: 1397741063
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