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Chapter 10

Health Promotion of the Infant and Family

infants gain ? weekly 150 to 210g (5-7oz) weekly until 5-6 months, when the birth weight doubles; by 1st yr, the infant's weight triples
height increases by ? a month 2.5cm (1 inch) a month during the first 6 months and slows during the second 6 months
head growth increase? during the 1st 6 months, head cicumference increases 1.5cm (0.6in) per months, but the growth declines to only 0.5cm (0.2in) monthly during the second 6 months
vernix caseosa a white oily substance that coats term infants' bodies and is often found in abundance in creases of axilla and groin, has innate immunologic properties that serve to protect newborns from infection
thermoregulation during infancy, the ability of the skin to contract and of muscles to shiver in response to cold increases
thermogenesis shivering causes the muscles and muscle fibers to contract, generating metabolic heat, which is distributed throughout the body
binocularity the fixation of two ocular images into one cerebral picture
prehension grasp; occurs during the first 2 to 3 months as a reflex & gradually becomes voluntary; @ 1 mos, hands are closed; @ 3 mos, theyre mostly open; by 5 mos, theyre able to voluntarily grasp objects; by 7 mos, theyre able to transfer objects to each hand
palmar grasp using whole hand
pincer grasp using thumb and index finger; by 8-10 mos, infants use a crude grasp; by 11 mos, they have a neat grasp
head control is well established 4 to 6 months; @ 5 months, head lag has diminished
ability to roll from abdomen to back occurs around 5 months; ability to turn from back to abdomen is at 6 months
parachute reflex appears a protective response to falling occurs around 7 months
infants can sit w/o support at 8 months; by 10 months, they can maneuver from prone to a sitting position
crawling propelling forward w/ the belly on the floor
creeping on hands and knees w/ belly off the floor by 9 months
can walk while holding on to furniture by 11 mos and by 1 yr they should be able to walk w/ one hand held
Erikson's phase 1 birth to 1 yr; is concerned w/ acquiring a sense of trust while overcoming a sense of mistrust
delayed gratification failure for infants to learn this leads to mistrust
narcissism total concern w/ oneself is at its height around 3 to 4 months
sensorimotor phase (Piaget) 1st crucial event involves separation in which infants learn to separate themselves from objects in the environment
sensorimotor phase (Piaget) 2nd crucial event achieving the concept of object permanence, or the realization that objects leave the visual field still exist; this skill develops at 9 months
sensorimotor phase (Piaget) 3rd crucial event the use of symbols or mental representation; allows infants to think of an object or situation w/o actually experiencing it
sensorimotor phase (Piaget) 1st stage from birth to 1 month, is identified as use of reflexes; infants' individuality and temperament is expressed through the physiological reflexes like sucking, rooting, grasping, and crying
sensorimotor phase (Piaget) 2nd stage primary circular reactions; marks the beginning of the replacement of reflexive behavior w/ voluntary acts; during the period of 1 to 4 months, reflexive behavior deliberate
sensorimotor phase (Piaget) 3rd stage secondary circular reactions is a continuation of primary circular reactions and lasts until 8 months
sensorimotor phase (Piaget) 4th stage coordination of secondary schemas and their application to new situation, infants use previous behavioral achievements primarily as the foundation for adding new intellectual skills to their expanding repertoire
attachment to parents is evident during the second half of the 1st year
Reactive attachment disorder (RAD) a psychological and developmental problem that stems from maladaptive or absent attachment between the infant and parent may persist into childhood and even adulthood
fear of strangers between 6 and 8 months
infants vocalize as early as 5 to 6 weeks by making small throaty sounds
imitate sounds by 8 months, they are saying words like dada but dont associate any meaning to it until 10-11 months
comprehend the word "no" by 9 to 10 months and obey simple commands
can say 3 to 5 words w/ meaning by age 1 year
solitary type of play infants engage in
Revised Infant Temperament Questionnaire (RITA) used as a screening tool w/ parents; the questionnaire focuses on nine temperament variables, but the 95 questions relate specifically to activities such as sleep, feeding, play, diapering, and dressing
in-home care may consists of a full-time babysitter who lives in the home, a full-time babysitter who comes to the home, cooperative arrangements such as exchange babysitting, or a family babysitter
small family child care home typically provides care and protection for up to six children for part of a 24 hr day and does not include arrangements such as exchange babysitting or caregivers in the childs own home
large family child care homes may provide care for eight to 12 children; unfortunately, many family daycare homes operate w/o a license and may care for large numbers of infants w/o adequate staff and facilities
child center-based care usually refers to a licensed daycare facility that provides care for six or more children for 6 hours or more in a 24 hr day
work-based group care another option that is becoming increasingly popular as employers recognize the benefit of providing high-quality and convenient child care to their employees
sick-child care may also be available for times when children are ill
thumb sucking reaches it's peak at age 18 to 20 months and is most prevalent when children are hungry, tired, or feeling insecure
a quick guide to assessment of deciduous teeth during the first 2 years age of child in months - 6= number of teeth
eat solid foods age 4 to 12 months
eat cereal age 4 to 6 months
eat fruits and vegetables start 6 to 8 months
eat meat, fish, and poultry start 8 to 10 months
eat eggs and cheese start at 12 months
Created by: Tdmara86