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MSE Ch 2

Materials Science and Engineering - Atomic Structure

The structure of materials are examined and described at these 5 levels: ___, ___, ___, ___, ___. macrostructure, microstructure, nanostructure, atomic arrangements (short-range and long-range), atomic structure
___ deals with sizes between 1,000-100,000 nm. Macrostructure
___ deals with sizes between 10-1000 nm. Microstructure
___ deals with sizes between 1-100 nm. Nanostructure
An atomic arrangement that is ___ lacks long-range ordering of atoms. amorphous
An atomic arrangement that is ___ exhibits periodic geometrical arrangements of atoms. crystalline
___ materials have ONLY short-range atomic arrangements. Amorphous
___ materials have short-range AND long-range atomic arrangements. Crystalline
The letter ___ denotes electrical charge. q
Each electron and each proton carries q of ___. 1.6 x 10^-19 coulomb (C)
The mass of each proton and neutron is ___. 1.67 x 10^-24 g
The mass of each electron is ___. 9.11 x 10^-28 g
N_A stands for ___. Avagadro number
N_A = ___. 6.023 x 10^23 atoms/mol
When lead-zirconium-titanate (PZT) ions are arranged in a tetragonal or rhombohedral crystals the material is ___. It develops electricity when subjected to ___ or ___. piezoelectric, pressure, stress
The energy level at which electrons belong is called the ___. quantum number
The 4 quantum numbers are ___, ___, ___, & ___. n, l, m_l, m_s
n = ___. principal quantum number or primary quantum number
n refers to the ___, which is the energy level to which an electron belongs. quantum shell
Each electron in a quantum shell is designated by one of four quantum numbers and the letters ___=1, ___=2, ___=3, etc. K, L, M
As the quantum shell number increases, the energy ___. increases
The azimuthal quantum number is designated by the letter ___. l
Each electron in a quantum shell is designated by one of four azimuthal quantum numbers ___, ___, ___, & ___ that represent___. s, p, d, f, orbitals
___ is the azimuthal quantum number with the lowest energy and ___ has the highest. s, f
The azimuthal quantum number orbital that is shaped like O is ___. s
The azimuthal quantum number orbital that is shaped like 8 is ___. p
The azimuthal quantum number orbital that is shaped like a clover leaf is ___. d
The azimuthal quantum number is also called a ___. subshell
If n=1, l=___. If n=2, l=___. (etc.) 0, 1
The magnetic quantum number is designated by ___ and gives us ___. m_l, the number of orbitals/subshells in each quantum shell (shell)
The formula ___ gives the total number of orbitals for each subshell (l). 2l + 1
The Pauli exclusion principle specifies that ___. no more than 2 electrons, with opposing spins, may be present in each orbital
Shorthand notation for He is 1s^2. 1=___. s=___. 2=___. n, subshell, number of electrons
Deviations from expected electron structures occur particularly when ___. atomic number is high
Fe has an unfilled ___ level which causes its ___ behavior. 3d, magnetic
The ___ of an atom is the number of electrons that participate in bonding. valence
Electronegativity describes the tendency of an atom to ___ an electron. gain
___ atoms tend to lose electrons. Electropositive
Engineering is mostly concerned with the following materials: ___, ___, & ___. polymers, ceramics, metallic materials
The primary bond/s is/are ___. metallic, covalent, ionic
The secondary bond/s is/are ___. van der Waals
Primary bonds are achieved when ___. an atom fills its valence shell
In ___ bonds, atoms are more electro___ and donate their valence electrons to form a "sea" of electrons. metallic, positive
Because their valence electrons move freely, most pure metals are good ___. electrical conductors
Under the influence of voltage, metallic valence electrons move, causing ___. a current that creates a circuit
Metallic bonds result in a high/low Young's modulus of elasticity because ___. high, atoms are close together
___ refers to the ability of materials to be stretched or bent without breaking. Ductility
Metals show good ductility because the bonds are ___. non-directional
Atoms in ___ bonds have a fixed directional relationship with each other and form specific angles. covalent
Covalent bonds are very strong/weak. strong
Covalent bonds generally have high/low melting points. high
If two electrical charges, +q and -q, are separated by a distance d, the dipole moment is defined as ___. q x d
A ___ atom has no dipole moment, but a ___ molecule may. neutral, neutral
A dipole moment is created when ___. a neutral atom is exposed to an internal or external electrical field
Forces created when atoms with dipoles are attracted to each other are called ___. van der Vaals forces
The three types of van der Vaals forces are ___, ___, & ___. London, Keesom, Debye
van der Vaals forces between atoms or molecules that are both induced are called ___. London
van der Vaals forces between atoms or molecules where one is induced and one is permanent are called ___. Debye
van der Vaals forces between atoms or molecules that are both permanent are called ___. Keesom
Hydrogen bonds are ___ bonds. Keesom
___ temperature is a temperature below which polymers tend to behave as brittle materials (poor ductility). Glass
Glass temperature is denoted with ___. T_g
Polymers are "plasticized" by adding ___ that interact with the long molecules. shorter polar molecules
Plasticizing lowers the T_g and increases ___. flexibility
T or F? Most materials are mixed bonds. T
Intermetallic compounds are generally ___ and ___ bonds. metallic, ionic
The higher the difference between the electronegativities of two metals, the ___(higher/lower) the percentage of ionic bonds there will be. higher
The fraction covalent formula is ___. e^(-0.25ΔE²) or e^(-0.25(difference in electronegativities)^2)
Interatomic spacing (equlibrium distance) between atoms is due to ___. repulsive and attractive forces
Equilibrium separation occurs when ___. the total interatomic energy (IAE) of the pair of atoms is at a minimum or when no net force is acting to either attract or repel the atoms
Interatomic spacing in a solid metal is approximately equal to ___. the atomic diameter (twice the r)
Interatomic spacing in ionically bonded material is approximately equal to ___. the sum of both r
___ is the minimum energy required to either create or break a bond. Binding energy
Materials with a high binding energy have ___ strength and ___ melting point. high, high
A material that requires greater force to stretch the bond is said to have a high ___. modulus of elasticity
Modulus of elasticity is AKA ___. Young's modulus
The level of stress at which a material begins to deform is known as the ___. yield strength
The formula for the coefficient of thermal expansion is ___. α=(1/L)(dL/dT) where L=direction and T=temperature
CTE is related to the ___. strength of the bonds
Created by: drjolley
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