Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Don't know
Know
remaining cards
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards
share
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

MSE Ch 2

Materials Science and Engineering - Atomic Structure

TermDefinition
The structure of materials are examined and described at these 5 levels: ___, ___, ___, ___, ___. macrostructure, microstructure, nanostructure, atomic arrangements (short-range and long-range), atomic structure
___ deals with sizes between 1,000-100,000 nm. Macrostructure
___ deals with sizes between 10-1000 nm. Microstructure
___ deals with sizes between 1-100 nm. Nanostructure
An atomic arrangement that is ___ lacks long-range ordering of atoms. amorphous
An atomic arrangement that is ___ exhibits periodic geometrical arrangements of atoms. crystalline
___ materials have ONLY short-range atomic arrangements. Amorphous
___ materials have short-range AND long-range atomic arrangements. Crystalline
The letter ___ denotes electrical charge. q
Each electron and each proton carries q of ___. 1.6 x 10^-19 coulomb (C)
The mass of each proton and neutron is ___. 1.67 x 10^-24 g
The mass of each electron is ___. 9.11 x 10^-28 g
N_A stands for ___. Avagadro number
N_A = ___. 6.023 x 10^23 atoms/mol
When lead-zirconium-titanate (PZT) ions are arranged in a tetragonal or rhombohedral crystals the material is ___. It develops electricity when subjected to ___ or ___. piezoelectric, pressure, stress
The energy level at which electrons belong is called the ___. quantum number
The 4 quantum numbers are ___, ___, ___, & ___. n, l, m_l, m_s
n = ___. principal quantum number or primary quantum number
n refers to the ___, which is the energy level to which an electron belongs. quantum shell
Each electron in a quantum shell is designated by one of four quantum numbers and the letters ___=1, ___=2, ___=3, etc. K, L, M
As the quantum shell number increases, the energy ___. increases
The azimuthal quantum number is designated by the letter ___. l
Each electron in a quantum shell is designated by one of four azimuthal quantum numbers ___, ___, ___, & ___ that represent___. s, p, d, f, orbitals
___ is the azimuthal quantum number with the lowest energy and ___ has the highest. s, f
The azimuthal quantum number orbital that is shaped like O is ___. s
The azimuthal quantum number orbital that is shaped like 8 is ___. p
The azimuthal quantum number orbital that is shaped like a clover leaf is ___. d
The azimuthal quantum number is also called a ___. subshell
If n=1, l=___. If n=2, l=___. (etc.) 0, 1
The magnetic quantum number is designated by ___ and gives us ___. m_l, the number of orbitals/subshells in each quantum shell (shell)
The formula ___ gives the total number of orbitals for each subshell (l). 2l + 1
The Pauli exclusion principle specifies that ___. no more than 2 electrons, with opposing spins, may be present in each orbital
Shorthand notation for He is 1s^2. 1=___. s=___. 2=___. n, subshell, number of electrons
Deviations from expected electron structures occur particularly when ___. atomic number is high
Fe has an unfilled ___ level which causes its ___ behavior. 3d, magnetic
The ___ of an atom is the number of electrons that participate in bonding. valence
Electronegativity describes the tendency of an atom to ___ an electron. gain
___ atoms tend to lose electrons. Electropositive
Engineering is mostly concerned with the following materials: ___, ___, & ___. polymers, ceramics, metallic materials
The primary bond/s is/are ___. metallic, covalent, ionic
The secondary bond/s is/are ___. van der Waals
Primary bonds are achieved when ___. an atom fills its valence shell
In ___ bonds, atoms are more electro___ and donate their valence electrons to form a "sea" of electrons. metallic, positive
Because their valence electrons move freely, most pure metals are good ___. electrical conductors
Under the influence of voltage, metallic valence electrons move, causing ___. a current that creates a circuit
Metallic bonds result in a high/low Young's modulus of elasticity because ___. high, atoms are close together
___ refers to the ability of materials to be stretched or bent without breaking. Ductility
Metals show good ductility because the bonds are ___. non-directional
Atoms in ___ bonds have a fixed directional relationship with each other and form specific angles. covalent
Covalent bonds are very strong/weak. strong
Covalent bonds generally have high/low melting points. high
If two electrical charges, +q and -q, are separated by a distance d, the dipole moment is defined as ___. q x d
A ___ atom has no dipole moment, but a ___ molecule may. neutral, neutral
A dipole moment is created when ___. a neutral atom is exposed to an internal or external electrical field
Forces created when atoms with dipoles are attracted to each other are called ___. van der Vaals forces
The three types of van der Vaals forces are ___, ___, & ___. London, Keesom, Debye
van der Vaals forces between atoms or molecules that are both induced are called ___. London
van der Vaals forces between atoms or molecules where one is induced and one is permanent are called ___. Debye
van der Vaals forces between atoms or molecules that are both permanent are called ___. Keesom
Hydrogen bonds are ___ bonds. Keesom
___ temperature is a temperature below which polymers tend to behave as brittle materials (poor ductility). Glass
Glass temperature is denoted with ___. T_g
Polymers are "plasticized" by adding ___ that interact with the long molecules. shorter polar molecules
Plasticizing lowers the T_g and increases ___. flexibility
T or F? Most materials are mixed bonds. T
Intermetallic compounds are generally ___ and ___ bonds. metallic, ionic
The higher the difference between the electronegativities of two metals, the ___(higher/lower) the percentage of ionic bonds there will be. higher
The fraction covalent formula is ___. e^(-0.25ΔE²) or e^(-0.25(difference in electronegativities)^2)
Interatomic spacing (equlibrium distance) between atoms is due to ___. repulsive and attractive forces
Equilibrium separation occurs when ___. the total interatomic energy (IAE) of the pair of atoms is at a minimum or when no net force is acting to either attract or repel the atoms
Interatomic spacing in a solid metal is approximately equal to ___. the atomic diameter (twice the r)
Interatomic spacing in ionically bonded material is approximately equal to ___. the sum of both r
___ is the minimum energy required to either create or break a bond. Binding energy
Materials with a high binding energy have ___ strength and ___ melting point. high, high
A material that requires greater force to stretch the bond is said to have a high ___. modulus of elasticity
Modulus of elasticity is AKA ___. Young's modulus
The level of stress at which a material begins to deform is known as the ___. yield strength
The formula for the coefficient of thermal expansion is ___. α=(1/L)(dL/dT) where L=direction and T=temperature
CTE is related to the ___. strength of the bonds
Created by: drjolley