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Chapter 5

Developmental & Genetic Influences on Child Health Promotion

growth an increase in number & size of cells as they divide & synthesize new proteins; results in increased size & weight of the whole or any of its parts
development a gradual change & expansion; advancement from lower to more advanced stages of complexity; the emerging & expanding of the individual's capacities through growth, maturation, and learning
maturation an increase in competence & adaptability; aging; usually used to describe a qualitative change; a change in the complexity of a structure that makes it possible for that structure to begin functioning; to function at a higher level
differentation processes by which early cells & structure are systematically modified & altered to achieve specific & characteristic physical & chemical properties; sometimes used to describe the trend of mass to specific; development from simple complex activities
quantitative change growth is viewed as
qualitative change development is viewed as
developmental task a set of skills & competencies peculiar to each developmental stage that children must accomplish or master to deal effectively w/ their enviornment
cephalocaudal directional trend the first pattern is head-to-tail direction; the head end of the organism develops first and is large & complex; the lower end is small & simple & takes shape at a later period
proximodistal directional trend or near-to-far, trend applies to the midline-to-peripheral concept; the early embryonic development of the limb buds, which is followed by rudimentary fingers & toes
differentiation directional trend describes development from simple operations to more complex activities & functions
birth weight doubles by 4-7 months
birth weight triples by the end of the 1st year
birth weight quadruples by the age of 2 to 2.5 years
skeletal or bone age most accurate measure of general development; the radiologic determination of osseous maturation
diaphysis the long central portion of the bone
epiphysis the end portions of the bone
basal metabolic rate (BMR) the rate of metabolism when the body is at rest
termperment the manner of thinking, behaving, or reacting characteristic of an individual
degree of fit between children & their environment, specifically their parents, that determines the degree of vulnerability
ID, the unconscious mind is the inborn component that is driven by instincts; the id obeys the pleasure principle of immediate gratification of needs, regardless of whether the object or action can actually do so
ego, the conscious mind serves the reality principle; it functions as the conscious or controlling self that is able to find realistic means for gratifying the instincts while blocking the irrational thinking of the id
superego, the conscience functions as the moral arbitrator & represents the ideal; its the mechanism that prevents individuals from expressing undesirable instincts that might threaten the social order
oral stage (Freud; psychosexual) birth-1 yr; during infancy, the major source of pleasure seeking is centered on oral activities such as sucking, biting, chewing, & vocalizing; kids may prefer one of these over the others, & method can provide indication of personality they develop
anal stage (Freud; psychosexual) 1-3yrs, interest during the 2nd yr of life centers in the anal region as sphincter muscles develop & kids are able to w/hold poop at will; the climate surrounding toilet training can have lasting effects on kid's personality
phallic stage (Freud; psychosexual) 3-6yrs, the genitalia become an interesting & sensitive area of the body; kids recognize differences between the sexes & become curious about dissimilarities
latency period (Freud; psychosexual) 6-12yrs, kids elaborate on previously acquired traits & skills; physical & psychic energy are channeled into acquisition of knowledge & vigorous play
genital period (Freud; psychosexual) 12yrs-older, begins at puberty w/ maturation of the reproductive system & production of sex hormones; the genital organs become the major source of sexual tensions & pleasures, but energies are also invested in forming friendships & preparing for marriage
trust vs mistrust (Erikson; psychosocial) birth-1 year; pg 72
autonomy vs shame & doubt (Erikson; psychosocial) 1-3 years; pg 72
initiative vs guilt (Erikson; psychosocial) 3-6 years; pg 72
industry vs inferiority (Erikson; psychosocial) 6-12 years; pg 72
identity vs role confusion (Erikson; psychosocial) 12-18 years; pg 72
cognition refers to the process by which developing individuals become acquainted w/ the world & the objects it contains
sensorimotor (Piaget; cognitive) birth-2 years; pg 73
permanence aware that an object exists even though it is no longer visible
preoperational (Piaget; cognitive) 2-7 years; pg 73
egocentrism does not mean selfishness or self-centeredness, but inability to put oneself in the place of another
intuitive in the latter stage of preoperational, kid's reasoning is intuitive (e.g., the stars have to go to bed just as they do), and they are only beginning to deal w/ problems of weight, length, size and time
transductive two events occur together, they cause each other, or knowledge of one characteristic is transferred to another (e.g., all women w/ big bellies have babies)
concrete operations (Piaget; cognitive) 7-11 year; pg 73
conservation kids realize that physical factors such as volume, weight, and number remain the same even though outward appearances are changed
formal operations (Piaget; cognitive) 11-15 year; pg 73
self concept includes all of the notions, beliefs, & convictions that constitute an individual's self knowledge & that influence that individual's relationships w/ others
body image refers to the subjective concepts & attitudes that individuals have toward their own bodies
self-esteem refers to a personal, subjective judgement of one's worthiness derived from & influenced by the social groups in the immediate environment & individuals' perceptions of how they are valued by others
competence how adequate are my cognitive, physical, & social skills?
sense of control how well can I complete tasks needed to produce desired actions? is someone or something specific vs luck or chance responsible for my successes & failures?
moral worth how closely do my actions & behaviors meet moral standards that have been set?
worthiness of love and acceptance how worthy am I of love and acceptance from parents, other significant adults, siblings, and peers?
Denver II most widely used developmental screening tests for young children which are a series of tests
somatic cell any body cell other than the ova and sperm
germ cells ova and sperm
apoptosis cell death
deformations often caused by extrinsic mechanical forces on normally developing tissue such as a club foot
disruptions result from the breakdown of previously normal tissue; congenital amputations caused by amniotic bands are examples
dysplasia results from abnormal organization of cells into a particular tissue type; congenital abnormalities of the teeth, hair, nails, or sweat glands may be manifestations of one of the more than 100 different ectodermal dysplasia syndromes
malformations abnormal formations of organs or body parts resulting from an abnormal developmental process
syndrome a recognized pattern of anomalies resulting from a single specific cause
association a nonrandom pattern of malformations for which a cause hasn't been determined
sequence when a single anomaly leads to a cascade of additional anomalies, the pattern of defects
teratogens agents that cause birth defects when present in the prenatal environment, account for the majority of adverse intrauterine effects not attributable to genetic factors
autosomes all chromosomes except the X and Y chromosomes
contiguous gene syndromes disorders characterized by a microdeletion or microduplication of smaller chromosome segments, which may require special analysis techniques or molecular testing to detect
single-gene disorder caused by an abnormality w/in a gene or in a gene's regulatory region
reduced or incomplete penetrance in a population when a proportion of persons who possess that allele do not express the phenotype
variable expressivity when individuals possessing that allele display the features of the syndrome in various degrees, from mild to severe
Created by: Tdmara86