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Chapter 9

Subduction The movement of one tectonic plate underneath another at a convergent plate boundary
Hot spot A term used to describe a specific point located near the middle of a tectonic plate that experiences volcanic activities
Mantle convection Large convection cells that are believed to exist in the earths upper mantle
Anticline A type of fold in rock strata that forms an arched shape
Syncline A U-shaped fold or depression in rock
Lateral force Forces that push in on sometimes from both sides
Strata Horizontal layers of sedimentary rocks
Geosyncline A bowl shaped depression in the earths crust formed from the deposition of large amounts of sediments
Fault A large break or crack in a large rock mass formed by tectonic stress that results in the displacement of rock strata
Rift valley A valley that forms along a divergent plate boundary where two tectonic plates are spreading apart
Mid-ocean ridges Divergent tectonic plate boundaries located on the ocean floor where new crust is formed that pushes on the two plates causing them to spread apart
Isostacy The theory that explains how the earths crust is in balance causing the continents to float at different levels on the asthenosphere below much different sized blocks of wood floating at different levels in water
Magnetic north The direction on the earth toward which a magnetic needle points which is slightly different from the geographical North Pole which is located directly on earths axis of rotation
Plate boundaries Specific areas on the earths crust where two or more tectonic plates interact with each other
Volcanic arc A chain of volcanic islands that forms near a convergent plate boundary located below the ocean