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How many lines of defense does the body have and subtypes 3 First layer second layer 3rd layer- very specific
What are the first line of defense? Skin and mucous membranes for openings (mouth, nose larynx, trachae)
What is an impermeable line of defense? skin
Why are smokers susceptible to lower RTI? paralyzes cilia, releases toxin causes inflammation
What do you know about neutrophils? Part of the second line of defense, first to arrive on scene, phagocytizes,
what happens with increase inflammation increase permeability of tissues
Why is inflammation important Although painful and annoying, it is good for healing. it brings in blood cells. increases blood flow to the area increasing o2 and nutrients to area, causes increased permeability so neutrophils can squeeze through the tissues
why is fever important? inactivates bacterial toxins which tend to be proteins. proteins in break easily with heat. also increases metabolism
Examples of third line of defense? T cells, B cells, Antibodies aka Ig/ Immunoglobins
Drawback of third line of defense? T cells, B cells and antibodies are specific so it may take time to activate
What are some non specific lines of defense Skin, mucous membranes, neutrophils/macrophages, inflammation, fever
Describe characteristics of Innate immunity rapid- min - hours, nonspecific, recognizes general microbes similar to each exposure, skin mucous membranes, phagocytes, inflammation, fever, phagocytes, natural killer cells, dendrites
describe some second lines of defense neutrophils, inflammation, fever, Natural killer cells
Describe qualiites of adaptive immunity Slow - days- weeks, specific to microbes, cell killing, tagging of antigens for removal, T and B lymphocytes
Which cells are part of innate immunity? Macrophage/neutrophils, natural killer cells and dendritic cells
What is the word for any Foreign substance? Antigen
Who decides that a cell is an antigen? your immune cells
describe characteristics of an antigen Big, large macromolecules lots of sugars, proteins, cells. transplant tissue, bacteria, virus,
does the immune system recognize the whole bacteria as an antigen? NO. immune system recognizes a part of the virus/bacteria as an antigen
what is an epitope? the immune cells recognize a PART of the virus/bacteria as foreingn that part is called epitope. there can be many epitopes
If antigens are large macromolecules, why is Penicillin, which is a small chemical, considered a powerful antigen to some people It is not a big antigen by itself but when Penicillin enters the body and binds to proteins, it now becomes a macromolecule
What is Hapten and give an example a small molecule that can illicent an immunee response only when attached to a large carrier such as a protein. ex Hapten
MHC stands for Major Histocompatiability Complex
how does immune cells recognize normal cells from abnormal cells? All nucleated cells , except immune cells have a bunch of protein cells caled MHC-1
T/f everyones MHC-1 is the same? False, everyone has a unique MHC-1. identical twins have identical MCH-1, closer the family member the closer the MHC-1 and less likely for rejection
why is MHC-1 Cells important? Its on the surface of all your cells, except immune cells and tells the immune system that they belong and the immune system thus does not phagocytize ( this is important for auto immune disease because of changed or missing MHC-1 cells)
What is another word for MHC-1? HLA or human Leukocyte antigen
What happens to a normal cell when a virus enters it? the normal cell takes the viruses epitope and puts it on its MHC-1 . this changes, alters MHC-1. when MHC-1 is changes or altered this triggers an immune resposne
What are 3 types of granulocytes Neutrophils, basophils and eopsinophil
the only secific cells are? Lymphocytes T cell and B cells
What doe sneutrophils like to do? engulf, eat,
What 2 granulocytes are responsible for inflammation? Basophils, eosinophils
Other names for Neutrophls Phagocytes, PMN, Polymorphic neucleocytes
before an injury where are all the immune cells located? bone marrow
how does monocyte become a macrophage? it travels through the blood stream as a monocyte released from bone marrow. when thye get to area of inflammation they will enter the tissue and mature as a macrophage just like neutrophils they are phgocyte
Main difference between a monocyte and a neutrophil both are phagocytic. monocytes turn into macrophages which are good at eating things and they also are presenting antigens, neutrophils dont but they are first to arrive. and is polymorphonuclear.
What is MHC-2 MHC-2 are on immune cells, particularly macrophages. this also detemrines macrophages from neutrophils. it is not a self expression but it expresses the antigen on its MHC-2
What is the link between non specific immunity and specific immunity? Macrophages
What is TCR? T-Cell Receptor. binds t cells to epitope on Macrophage. makes the t cell recognize epitopes
Describe the road from macrophage release in the bone marrow to t cells Monocytes are located in bone marrow and released int o blood stream as monocytes. once it gets to the injured tissue, it turns into a macrophage which begins to engulfs and presents epitope on MHC-2. once t cells find it it begins to activate
besides bone marrow where else can we find macrophages? lymph nodes, spleen, alveoli, liver (kupffer cells) CNS (migroglia) skin (Langerhan cells)
Macrophages in alveoli are called what? Alveolar macrophages
Macrophages of CNS are called what? Microglia
Macrophage of liver are called what? Kupffer cells
Macrophage of skin cells are called Langerhan cells
What are 2 types of lymphocytes? T cells or T lymphocytes and B cells / B lymphocytes
What percentage of yout wbc are t cells? 20-25%
where do all lymphocytes come from? bone marrow
where do immature t cells go to mature? Thymus gland located in the neck
describe qualities of t cells 70% of lymphocytes made in bone marrow mature in thymus
2 types of t cellls? Helper t cells and cytotoxic t cells
describe helper t cells AKA CD4 cells because of presence of a surface protein main target of HIV and help activate other t cells no direct contact!
what are cD4 cells aka cluster t cells aka cluster of differentiation is a group of proteins that are used as a marker to distinguis T cells
what do helper t cells do? once t cells are activated by macrophages they release cytokines
What are cytokines they stimulate an immune response and stimulate release of macrophages, cytotoxic t cells, natural killer cells and b cells
what are cytotoxic t cells also known as? CD8 cells
cytotoxic t cells are activated by what? helper t cells
What ways do cytotixic t cells kill? releasing toxic cytokines, cytolytic enzymes and perforins
What are memory b cells preactivated B cells that remain dormant for years and possibly lifetime
advantage of b cells Instead of going through the while ordeal of building and antibody. it is already activated and if that antigen is recognized later you have a quicker and more intense response
what is an APC? anticen presenting cell. when a macrophage engulfs the tissue and presents its antigen on its MHC-2 it then becomes an APC
what are plasma cells? when a B cell encounters an epitope it can turn itno a memory b cell or a plasma cell. plasma cells make antibodies b cell has to encounter the virus
What is a lymphocyte cells riginating from bone marrow
Why are NK cells so different? because they are a lymphocyte like T and B cells but unlike them they are non specific. also unlike other cells they are not stimulated by t cells
How do NK cells work? they directly attack infected cells. they have 2 receptors, Killer activating and Killer inhibiting. when the inhibitnc receptor binds to MHC-1 cells there is no attack, but if it cant attach to MHC-1 cells than it attacks directly.
what are antibodies also known as? Immunoglobulin
hat are they main role of immunoglobulin? to bind and inactivate. they do not engulf
describe the structure of an antibody it is Y shaped. and has 2 regions. the lower region is a constant region called Fc, the same in all antibodies) another part called Variable region Fab is different in all antibodies
how do we make different antibodies? make different Fab / variable region
how many types of antibodies and their names 5 IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, IgE
What is th emost immunoglobin in the body? IgG- 75%
describe IgG most Ig found in the body, only one to cross the placenta to protect the baby, anti viral, anti toxin, antibacterial. main responder
describe IgA second most Ig in body, in body secretions like saliva, nasal and respiratory. protects the mucous membranes. transmitted in breast mik
which anitbody crosses the placenta to go to the baby? IgG
which anibody is secreted in breast milk? IgA
describe IgM formes against AVO reaction, blood transfusion reactions
which antibody forms reaction against blood transfutions? IgM
describe IgD cells very little amount. they are found on b cells needed for maturation of b cells
which antibodies are needed for maturation of b cells? IgD
IgE least amount of antibody resposnible for anaphylactic reaction, parasytic infection and binds to amst cells adn basophils
which antibodies are founf on basophils? IgE
which antibody is responsible for anaphylaxis? IgE
what happens when virus is covered with antibodies? wont be able to infect
what happsn to bacteria or virus once it is bound to antibodies? macrophges come and eat them up
describe maternal and fetus/infant passive immunity fetus makes no Ig, gets all of it from mother. one born maternal igG drops and total igG in body drops as baby tries to make its own around 2 months after 5 mo no maternal igG found in baby but total igG levels begin to rise as baby makes its own
when does baby begin making its own antibodies? 1-2 months and begins increasing
what are cytokines? small protiens made by immune cells to stimulate other cels of immune system
what happens with an over production of cytokines? there will be chronci inflammation associated with overproduciton of cytokines. causes anorexia and cachexia
where can we see an overactivity of cytokines? AIDS, Cancer, chronic inflammatory diseases like chrones and IBD
what are compliment proteins? made by liver released in inactive state. when they encounter an antigen/antobody process/ epitope it goes through a process act as signals for macrophages]enhance likley hood that macrophage will find it.
what is a rare thing that compliment protein can do:? made by liver, activated by encountering bacteria, clump together to form a pore complex an inserts into bacteria membrane. as a pore it allows water and toxins to get into bacteria and it swells and dies
what 2 thins do compliment protien do? makes bacteria more tasty for macrophages to etect by binding to antigen/antibody complex, also makes pores in bacteria allowinf water and toxins into the membrane causing it to swell and die
innate vs adaptive immunity innate is nonspecifi, rapid is the benefit nad examples are mucous membranes, skin and fever inflammation adaptive is slower but great sensitivity
benefit and downfall of innate immunity rapid but nonsepcific
benefit and downfall of adaptive immnity great snsitivuty but slow to respond
another word for MHC major histocompatibility complex is aka HLA or human leukocyte antigen because it was first ofund on leukocytes
how doe MHC become an antigen if its missing or changed in anyway
what re mhc-2 cells found on immune cells not for self recoginition but for presenitng antigens
what are leukocytes WBC
non specific WBC granulocytes: neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils,NK cells, compliment
neutrophils aka PMN, first line, eats anything , phagocytic, permeates because of inflammation
how do neutrophils work engulf and release granules onto organisms and digest it. contains digestive enzymes
what is transmigration neutrophils going through epithelial cells due to inflammation
mechanisms for basophils and eosinophils inflammation they are not phagocytic
monocyte- nonspecific made in bone marrow and released as monocyte turns into macrophage when it encounters inflammed tissues and enters it
macrophage first were monocytes but macrophage engulf similar to neutrophils nonspecific
what is an APC when macrophage engulfs an antigen it expreses its epiotpe on its MHC2 this is called antigen presenting cell
what is the link between specific and nonspecific immunity macrophages because start as monocyte and when it turns itno ApC it binds to t cells ( specific immunity)
difference in structure between monocyte and macrophage monocyte is round and macrophage is mobile and has pseudopods
what is a TCR or t cell receptor binds to epitope on APC after which it goes around looking for that cel
what is significance of lymphatic system? it runs alongside the blood vessles which are always leaking blood. it collects that extrafluid and drains into subclavian vein. they are filters
what are lymph nodes filled with macrophages so we are not dumping infected blood back into system
describe how t cells are matured starts as stem cells in bone marrow and released as pre t cells to the thymus located in neck to mature into t cells
ho are helpr t cells activated by coming in contact with an APC
what do helper t cells do thy activate other immune cells by releasing cytokines whic activate immune cells like macrophage activity, stimulate bone marrow to make mor make more, also make cytotoxic t cells b cells and nk cells do not kill
what is another name for helper t cells CD4 cells cluster of differnetiation
how are ytotoxic t cells activated by cytokines released from CD4
what is anothe rworkd for cytotoxic t cells CD8 cells
how do CD8 cells work toxic to other cells. estroys directly acter cehcking cells for altered mhc1 it releases toxic cytokines, releaes digestive enzymes called cytolytic enzymes and release proteins called preforins which causes cells to lyse
how are b cells activated stays in bone mrow until cytokiens released by helper t cels cause its activation it also binds directly to t cells
what are plasma cells aka mature b cells once it comes into contact with t cells it turns into plasma cells and begin to make antibodies
how does NK cells work? non specific they go around and use their killer activating receptor to bind than tries to bind the killer inhibitroy receptors to MHC1 until it finds an altered one to destroy it
how are NK cells activated? cytokines
what do antibodeis do? they bind and inactivate
another word for antibodies immunoglobulins
how many immunoglobulins do we have? 5 GAMDE
igG largest amount croses placenta, antibacterial antitoxin and antiviral, largest immune resposne
IgE not so much for immune response moslty for hypersensitivity
igA found in body secretions like saliva, nasal resp secretions so mostly founf in body openings also secreted in breast mil
igM for bood trasnfusion
igD found on B cells for maturaiton of b cells
what happens whenantibody is bound to antigen? its inactivated and macrophages come and eat it
opsinization a bacteria thats covered in immunoglobulins
pros and cons of cytokines good because it mounts an immune reaction but too much is bad can cause anorexia by impairing apetite and cause cachexia or wasting by breaking down and catabolizing
where might we see an overproduction of cytokines? Chorns, IBD chronic inflammation AIDS ( anorexia cachexia)
where are compliment porteins maid liver
who might have defects in making compliment proteins? liver disease pts
how do compliment proteins work? bonds to antigen/antibody complex and signals the macrophages to come and inactivates enhances liklyhood macrophages will see it, can also form pores on membranes allowing ions and wate rto flow through causing lysis
what are stable cells? ex are heptocyte which can regenerate if necessary
Created by: Cherry5301