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Fall13 Science Syd

8th grade Science

a particle that has a positive charge proton
The fact that an atom is neutral is most closely related to the number of protons ad electrons the atom contains
Electrons involved in bonding between atoms are valence electrons
What is the greatest number of valence elections an atom can have that we've learned about this year? 3
From an elements location in the periodic table you can predict its properties
The elements in a column of the periodic table are in the same group
The elements in a group, or family, of the periodic table have the same physical properties
Across a period of elements in the periodic table, the number of valence electrons increases from left to right
Which process changes matter into one or more new substances chemical change
Water vapor in the air turns to liquid water in the form of rain. This is an example of a physical change
every chemical reaction involves a change in energy
in the following equation what does the number 4 in 4 H2O tell you? 2NH4NO3>2N2+4H2) The reaction produces 4 water molecules
The substance listed on the LEFT side of a chemical equation are the Reactants
in chemical reactions, what does the principle of conservation of mass mean matter is not created or destroyed
Which of the following is a balanced chemical equation 2Fe2O3+3C>4Fe+3CO2
In an equation, numbers often appear in front of a chemical formula. These number (Coefficient) tell you the number of atoms in each molecule in the reaction
A bottle of hydrogen peroxide that eventually turns into a bottle of water and oxygen gas is an example of a decomposition
The chemical reaction between copper oxide and carbon that produces copper and carbon dioxide (CuO + C > Cu + CO2) is an example of replacement
The outside of the space shuttle is protected from extremely high heat during reentry by an outer covering of ceramic tiles
Reactions involving the particles in the nucleus of an atom are called chemical reactions
An object is in motion only if it changes potion relative to a reference point
What is the formula for the speed of an object speed = distance/time
the rate at which the velocity of an object changes is its acceleration
what causes an object to accelerate a force exerted on it
newtons first law of motion states that an object at rest will remain at rest unless a force is exerted on it
the transfer of energy by electromagnetic wave is called radiation
Energy that is transferred by electromagnetic waves in the universe is called electromagnetic radiation
All electromagnetic waves have the same speed
Which electromagnetic waves have the longest wavelengths and lowest frequencies radio waves
visible light has a higher frequency than infrared rays
the range of electromagnetic waves placed in a certain order is called the electromagnetic spectrum
The electromagnetic waves with the highest frequencies are called gamma rays
visible light can be separated into the various colors of the visible spectrum to form rainbow
both reflecting and refracting telescopes are designed to collect and focus visible light
reflecting telescopes differ from refracting telescopes in having no eye piece lens
The hubble Space Telescope collects visible light from above Earths atmosphere
Spectrographs help astronomers determine the temperature of a star
the chemical composition of a star can be determined using a spectrograph
a light year is the distance light travels in a year
parallax is a method used to determine a stars distance from earth
what color are the hottest stars blue-white
The hertz sprung russell diagram shows that main dquence stars increase in brightness as they increase in temperature
all stars begin their lives as parts of protostars
the lifetime of a star depends on its mass
when stars begin to run out of fuel they first become red giants or supergiants
black holes form from the remains of stars that were more than 40 times the mass of the sun
when a white dwarf stops glowing it becomes a black dwarf
how are the elliptical galaxies and spiral galaxies different elliptical galaxies have little gas and dust
the theory that astronomers have developed to describe the beginning of the universe is called the big bang theory
one piece of evidence that supports the big bang theory is the observation that most galaxies are moving away from one another
according to the big bang theory, the universe began about 10-15 billion years ago
the solar system form from nebula
when the solar system formed the spheres that lost most of their gases became the inner planets
day and night are caused by earth's rotation on its axis
one complete revolution of earth around the sun takes about one year
earth has season because earth's axis is tilted as it moves around the sun
when the north end of earth's axis is tilted toward the sun, North America will experience more direct rays and longer days (summer)
an Equinox occurs when Earth's axis is tilted neither toward nor away from the sun
because the moon rotates once for revolution around Earth you never see the far side of the moon
the pass of the moon you see depends on how much of the moon's surface is lit by the sun
from new moon phase to full moon phase you see an increasing amount of the lighted side of the moon
for a solar eclipse to occur the moon must be directly between Earth and the sun
during what phase can a lunar eclipse occur full
you are less likely to see a solar eclipse than a lunar eclipse because you must be in the moons shadow to see a solar eclipse
not every place on Earth has two regular Tides every day because the shapes of bays, inlets, and the ocean floor can affect the flow of water
most places on Earth experience two high tides and two low tides about every 12.5 hours
a spring tide can only at sketch Spring Tide new moon (the best/highest)
How large is the moon's diameter compared to Earth? about one fourth the diameter of Earth
Scientist think the moon was formed when a large object struck Earth, and material from both bodies combined and was thrown into orbit
Galileo thought that the dark, flat parts of the noon's surface were oceans
The moon includes all of the following features EXCEPT oceans
All of the following conditions are needed for life on Earth EXCEPT one natural satellite that orbits the planet
Which of the following is a reason scientists think Mars may have once had life? Mars has surface features that could have been made by flowing water
one complete Revolution of Earth around the sun takes about one year
What is the oxidation number for Lithium +1
An oxidation number of -2 would represent what element Sulfur
The ability to Shine Luster
The Ability to bend without breaking malleable
The ability to transfer conduction
the ability to break easily brittle
you can show the motion of an object on a line graph in which you plot distance against Time
A train that travels 100 kilometers in 4 hours is traveling at what average speed 25 km/h
An example of qualitative observations is Green
Created by: cleanmama