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Notes for Exam 1

What is Geographic Information Systems? An electronic map tied to a database.Needs: Hardware, Software, Data, People
When did GIS begin? And where? IT began to take off between the 1950's and 60's using a computer. Canada.
Who is the godfather of GIS? Dr. Roger Tomlinson, tried to put all maps put into computer.
Types of Key maps. Scanned maps, Vectorized scanned maps, topological systems, attribute table.
What institute brought people together? Harvard.
What was the name of the first GIS software package? Symap
Jack Dagermond made which company? Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI)
What is a map? A map is a 2-D representation of something on the surface of the earth.
What is looked for on a map? Distance, Direction, Size, Shape
Types and definition of types of maps General- emphasis on location, Thematic- single subject
What is a scale? the relationship between distance measured on the map and distance on the ground.
3 types of scales Graphical scale- graduated bar, Verbal scale-linch=200feet, Fractional scale- compares map distance to ground distance by proportional numbers and is expressed as a ratio.
What are the 7 map essentials? Scale, Title, Date, legend, direction(north arrow), location material, metadata(data about data- who created it? where did it come from?)
What are 3 datums? NAD27, NAD83, WGS84
By how many feet are NAD and WGS off? 200 feet
Explain a Mercater map. Preserves direction and shape. Sacrafices distance and area
Explain a Peters Projection map. Preserves area. Sacrafices shape distance and direction.
What does an overlay have? Projection, coordinates, data
Measurments north and south of equator. Latitude
Angular measurements west and east if prime meridian. Longitude
What is a project? multiple data sets, symbology, layouts, pathes
What is data? Indivual themes
What is a Raster Model? deals with pixels, overlay a grid on map
What is a Vector Model? -Points (X,Y) coordinates-lines, series of points-polygons, an enclosed line
Examples of Geographic Data location, points lines, polygons, pixels
Name types of Geographic Attributes Descriptions linked to location, nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio
What is Nominal? One that serves only to identify and entity from another
What is Ordinal? Values that have a natural order
What is an interval? Value differences make sense
What is a ratio? Simular to interval has no arbutary zero
What is data classification? Group the data 3-10
What is equal interval? dividesthe full range of attributes into equally sized subranges.(good for presentations)
What is quantiles? ID breakpoints between classes so that each subclass ha the same amount of data.
What is natural breaks? Using statistics ID breakpoints between classes to form subgroups "naturally"
What is frequency distribution? an ordered array that shows the frequency of occurance of each value.
What is a Histogram? Graphical frequency distribution
Make a histogram using these numbers 1,1,2,4,5,7,11,15,16,16,16,20,22,22,23,26,27,29,30,30 0-5=5=.25, 6-10=1=.05, 11-15=2=.1, 16-20=4=.2, 21-25=3=.15, 26-30=5=.25
What is mode? Most frequent number
What is the median? Middle number (make sure to put number in order)
What is mean? Average
Find the mode, median, mean, standard deviation, +1s, -1s, and final answer of 100,90,80,75,20 mode=0 or all, median=80, mean=73, standard deviation=31.14, +1s=104.14, -1s=41.85, final answer=4 out of 5 data are within +/-1s
What is topology branch of mathematics that deals with relationship between points. (points-nodes) (lines-arcs) (polygon in 2-d space)
What is a node? point created by intersecting lines or at the beginning or end of line.
What is connectivity? ID of interconted lines.
What is Contiguity? ID of which polygons touch each other(shared arcs)
What is Area Definition? ID of areas by a set line.
Who created the GPS? Department of defense.
How many satellites are used for GPS? How many are needed? 24 used, 21 needed
3 things on a satellite computer-flight and function of satellite, Atomic clock- accurate time, Radio transmitter-signals
Advantages and disadvantages of a C/A code Advantage- quick, disadvantage- less accuate than P code, and can be jammed or spoofed
Advantages and disadvantages of P code more accurate, not difficult to spoof or jam
Control segment interference to satellites control staions
What does a receiver do? receieves data
approx. position of satellite almanac
Precise position of satellite Ephemeris
How many satellites for Location? 3, lat/long
How many satellites for position? 4, lat/long and elevation
What is a waypoint? Stored location in receiver.
What are WAAS? signals from airport, produced by FAA
What is differential GPS? loading your waypoints to compare with stored location
Convert 43degrees 41min 31sec to decimal degrees 43.0753
Convert 89.40062 to DMS 89degrees 24min 2.32sec
Air photo with coordinates Digital orthophoto quad (DOQ)
can see elevation Digital Elevation Model (DEM)
series of vectors Digital Line Graph (DLG)
topographic map Digital Raster Graphic (DRG)
Metadata needed to document ID info, Data quality, Spatial data org, Spatial ref. info, entity and attribute, distribution info, metadata ref. info
Title area covered keyword ID info
Horizontal and vector accuacy, completeness Data Quality
Raster/Vector Spatial data org.
lat/long, coordinate, projection, data Spatial ref info
Definition of entity and attributes entity and attribute
Fees, files format Distribution info
Who created the metadata? Metadata ref info
Created by: jrw4274