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Which German Meteorologist developed the theory of Continental Drift? Alfred Wegener
What does the theory of Continental Drift say? Contients have moved slowly over time to their current locations
What does the theory of Continental Drift call the single landmass of Earth that broke apart about 200 million years ago? Pangaea
List the evidence that Wegener presented for Continental Drift. 1. Puzzle-like fit of continents 2. Fossil Clues 3. Climate clues 4. Rock Clues
Explain what puzzle fit of continents means. the coastlines if continents fit together like puzzle pieces and match up for example S. america fits into Africa
Explain the fossil clues of continental drift. Mesosaurus a freshwater reptile was found on both S. America and Africa and wasn't capable of swimming between them, also Glossopteris an ancient warm weather plant has been found on Africa, S. America, Australia, India and Antarctica
Explain the climate clues of continental drift. Fossils of warm climate plants are found in present-day cold climates (Coal is an example made from warm marsh plants but found in mountains and other cold regions, also rocks deposited by glaciers from ice ages are found in present-day warm climates
Explain the rock clues of continental drift. Similar rock structures are found on different continents separated by oceans for example the Appalachians in USA are similar to mountains in Greenland and rocks in Africa and S. America match
Why was Wegener's theory of Continental Drift not accepted by scientists during his lifetime? He could not provide the mechanism or reason why the continents move
What is a mid-ocean ridge and how were they discovered? an underwater mountain range found using radio waves to map the ocean floor
How does a mid-ocean ridge form? less dense magma flows out of a crack in the Earth's crust which drags the seafloor along with it as it is pushed up and out
What is seafloor spreading? the seafloor spreads apart as magma flows up through a crack in the Earth's crust at the ridge forming new rock
List the evidence used to explain seafloor spreading. 1. Drilling 2. Magnetism
Explain how drilling provided evidence of seafloor spreading. Rock samples were removed from the ocean floor using drills. As you move away from the mid-ocean ridges the rock gets older the farther you go.
Explain how magnetism provided evidence of seafloor spreading. When the rock samples were examined from the ocean floor there are changes in magnetic alignment (direction of North) of the Earth found in alternating bands that are the same on either side of a mid-ocean ridge.
What theories were combined to create the Theory of Plate tectonics? Continental Drift and Seafloor Spreading
What is the Theory of Plate Tectonics? The Earth's crust and solid upper mantle (the lithosphere) are broken into plates and move around on a plastic-like layer of the mantle (called the asthenosphere)
List the seven major tectonic plates. 1. North American 2. South American 3. Pacific (largest) 4. African 5. Antarctic 6. Australian 7. Eurasian
List the 3 types of plate boundaries. Divergent, Convergent, Transform
Describe a Divergent plate boundary. 2 plates move apart and form new crust
What features form at a divergent plate boundary? Mid-ocean ridge or rift valley
Describe a Convergent boundary. 2 plates move together
Describe the 3 different types of Convergent boundaries. 1. Ocean plate and continental plate collide pushing the ocean plate under the continental plate 2. Continental plate and Continental plate collide forcing both plates upward 3. Ocean plate collide with ocean plate pushing up islands
What features form at a convergent boundary? 1. Ocean-continent collide form trenches & volcanic mountains or islands Ex: Marianas trench and Andes 2. Continent-continent collide form high mountain ranges Example: Himalayas 3.Ocean and ocean collide form volcanic island arc Example: Mariana Islands
Describe a Transform boundary. 2 plates slide past each other in different directions or the same direction but different rates
What features form at a transform boundary? Strike-slip faults Ex: San Andreas fault in California
What causes the movement of the tectonic plates? Convection currents inside the mantle of the Earth
What is causes a convection current in the mantle? heating of magma at the Earth's core that rises, this magma cools when it hits the underside of the crust, the cooling magma sinks dragging the plates of the lithosphere with it
What features are formed by plate tectonics? Faults, Volcanoes, mountains
What is a fault? a crack in the tectonic plates (rocks) caused by stress, happen at plate boundaries and when they move cause Earthquakes
How do volcanoes form at plate boundaries? During subduction, magma oozes up through the crust and erupts on the surface forming a volcano
Where do mountains form? A convergent and divergent plate boundaries
What is the process of mountain building called? Orogenesis
What are the 4 types of mountains? 1.Volcanic 2. Folded 3. Fault-block 4. Upwarped
Describe a folded mountain. rocks are squeezed from opposite sides causing them to buckle and fold (Convergent boundary)
Describe a fault-block mountain. Huge tilted blocks of rock that are separated by faults
Describe an upwarped mountain. blocks of Earth's crust are pushed up by forces inside the Earth (Domes)
Give an example of folded mountains. Himalayas and Appalachias
Give an example of Fault block mountains. Sierra Nevadas
Give an example of upwarped mountains. Rockies
What is elastic deformation? Rocks will bend and stretch up to a limit
What is it called when a rock reaches its breaking point and finally cracks or breaks sending vibrations out into the surrounding rock caused by the movement of the break. Earthquake
List the 3 types of faults. 1. Normal 2. Reverse 3. Strike-Slip
Describe a Normal fault. The hanging wall moves down in relation to the foot wall
What type of force acts on a normal fault? Tension or pulled apart
Describe a Reverse fault. The hanging wall moves up in relation to the foot wall
What type of force acts on a reverse fault? Compression or pressing together
Describe a Strike-Slip fault. the sides of the fault move past each other horizontally either in different directions or at different speeds in the same direction
What type of force acts on a strike-slip fault? Shear or tearing in different directions
What is the wave called that are created by Earthquakes that travel through the Earth? Seismic waves
What is the point called where the earthquake energy is first released? Focus
Where is the focus found? Below the Earth's surface along the fault or break in rock
What if the point directly above the focus on the Earth's surface called? Epicenter
List the 3 types of seismic waves. 1. Primary (P) 2. Secondary (S) 3. Surface (L)
How does a P-wave move? rock particles move back and forth in the same direction the wave is traveling
How does a S-wave move? rock particles move up and down at right angles to the direction the wave travels
Where do P and S waves originate? At the Earthquake focus
Which type of wave travels fastest? P- wave
How does a L-wave (surface) move? rock particles move in a backward, rolling and side to side swaying motion (3 directions)
Which wave type causes the most damage? L-wave or surface wave
Where do surface waves originate? At the Earthquake epicenter
What is a seismograph? a machine that records the waves and time of arrival of Earthquake waves
What is a seismogram? The actual paper and recording of an earthquake
How is epicenter distance from a station calculated? The difference in time of the arrival of the P and S waves
How many stations are required to locate the epicenter of an earthquake? 3 different stations
The amount of energy released in an earthquake is what? magnitude
Which numeric scale describes the strength (magnitude) of an earthquake. Richter scale
Which numeric scale describes the amount of danage done by an earthquake? Mercalli scale
What is liquefaction? The shaking of an earthquake causes wet soil to act like a liquid allowing the ground to sink and things built on it to collapse
What is an ocean wave caused by underwater earthquakes? Tsunami
What is another name for seismic sea waves? tsunami
Created by: mickeycurran