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Europe's Culture & Government

The Chunnel undersea tunnel beneath English Channel connecting England and France allowing exchange of goods and people
St. Peter's Basilica Rome, Italy; Renaissance church located in Vatican City; burial site of St. Peter
Louvre Paris, France; now a museum, used to be fortress and palace of King Louis XIV
Coliseum Rome, Italy; world's largest amphitheater where Roman gladiators fought
L'Arc de Triomphe Paris, France; monument honoring fallen soldiers of French wars
Parthenon Athens, Greece; ancient Classical Greek temple to goddess Athena
Notre Dame Cathedral Paris, France; one of largest Roman Catholic churches in world; Gothic architecture
Vatican City Rome, Italy; walled compound that is smallest independent state in world
Eiffel Tower Paris, France; 1889 entrance to World's Fair,used to be world's tallest structure
Big Ben and Houses of Parliament Big Ben is largest bell in Elizabethan (clock) Tower; House of Lords & House of Commons are governmental bodies of U.K. that meet in Parliament
Chernobyl, Ukraine city in Ukraine that was site of 1986 worst nuclear disaster in history
Cyprus island country in Mediterranean Sea seized by Alexander the Great; farming spread to Europe from Middle East through Cyprus
Balkan Peninsula region of Southeast Europe with many diverse ethnic groups bordered by Balkan Mountains
Francophone areas with French-speaking people; in Europe-France, Belgium, Luxembourg, Monaco, Switzerland
Black Forest polluted areas of Poland, Germany & Czech Republic covered in black soot from coal burning pollution that releases sulfur emissions
Chalets wood homes with low level living area and narrow roofs to hold heat in mountainous areas of Alps, Switzerland & Bavaria (Germany)
Tiled Roofs roof tiles made to withstand heat and keep home cool in warm Mediterranean areas of Southern France and Italy
Crusades Holy War fighters who tried to regain Holy Land from Muslims but failed, also tried to convert unbelievers throughout Europe
Renaissance means "rebirth" of knowledge; resurgence of art, music, literature & philosophy beginning in Italy and spreading throughout Europe
Communism political & economic theory of Karl Marx that government should own and redistribute property; there should be no private property ownership; is antithesis (opposing) to capitalism
Socialism cradle to grave government controlled human services (health care, jobs, housing)
Ethnicity group of people who share common ancestry, language, customs, religion; Europe has more than 40 countries and over 160 different ethnic groups
Ethnic Cleansing when one group expels or kills a rival ethnic group in order to eradicate (eliminate) it; took place in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo with Serbs committing ethnic cleansing against rival groups
Genocide deliberate, systematic (planned) destruction of an ethnic, religious, or national group; example is Rwandan Genocide of Tutsi people in Africa
Holocaust mass genocide of over 6 million Jews and other "undesirables" in Nazi-controlled concentration camps in Germany & Poland; Germany's Adolf Hitler sought to create an Aryan Race
Cold War period of tension between western democracy (U.S.) and Soviet Union & Eastern Europe (U.S.S.R.) bloc communist countries, resulting in escalation of military buildup
Comparative Advantage ability ("efficiency") of a country to produce a good or service at a lower cost than another country, thus giving it an economic advantage over the other country
European Union organization of member countries created in 2000 to unify (join together) to strengthen trading power with rest of world by using common currency; becoming more powerful today
NATO [North American Treaty Organization] military organization created in 1949 of 28 North American & European countries who agree to defend each other if attacked; also called "Atlantic Alliance"; still in existence today
Commonwealth of Nations formed in 1949 by 53 member states of former British Empire territories united by history, culture, democracy, human rights, and rule of law ideals
refugees people who flee to a foreign country for physical, religious, or political sanctuary (safety)
Urbanization movement of people from rural agricultural farming to industry based cities for manufacturing jobs; a result of Industrial Revolution which began in England via coal & iron ore supplying steel industry
Windmills Found in Low Countries (Netherlands & Belgium) along NW Europe's coastline where land is at or below sea level and land is reclaimed for farming & settlement
Created by: poffmoore