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Peds Respiratory

QuestionAnswer
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) Sudden death of an infant younger than 1 year of age that remains unexplained after a complete postmortem examination, including an investigation of the death scene and a review of the case history.
Apnea cessation of breathing for 20 seconds
Apparent life threatening event (ALTE) event that is sudden and frightening to the observer; the infant exhibits a combination of apnea, change in color, change in muscle tone, choking, gagging, or coughing, and which usually involves a significant intervention
Parents' last moments with the SIDS child Allow them to say good-bye in an environment as quite, meaningful, peaceful, and undisturbed as possible
Home apnea monitor Continuous recording of cardiorespiratory patterns. Then cannot predict or prevent SIDS deaths. They can alert the caregiver to ALTE in time to intervene.
Asthma chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways in which many cells (mast cells, eosinophils, and T lymphocytes) play a role.
Asthma the most common chronic disease of childhood
Asthma pathophysiology Inflammation contributes to heightened airway reactivity. Bronchospasm and bronchial constriction. Obstruction from inflammation, airway edema, mucus accumulation, and bronchspasm
Asthma clinical manifestations dyspnea, wheezing, coughing (in the absence of resp. infection), chest tightness, restless/irritable, tripod sitting position, hyperresonance on percussion.
pulmonary function tests (PFTs) objective method of evaluating the presence and degree of lung disease and the response to therapy.
Preventative asthma medications Long-term control medications to achieve and maintain control of inflammation. Inhaled corticosteroids, cromolyn sodium, long-acting B2-agonists, methylxanthines, and leukotriene modifiers
Rescue asthma medications Quik-relief medications treat symptoms and exacerbations. Short-acting B2-agonists, anticholinergics, and systemic corticosteroids.
Corticosteroids antiinflammatory drugs used to treat reversible airflow obstruction and control symptoms and reduce bronchial hyperresponsiveness in chronic asthma
cromolyn sodium non-steroidal anti inflammatory drug that stabilizes mast cell membranes; inhibits activation and release of mediators form eosinophil and epithelial cells; inhibits the acute airway narrowing after exposure to exercise, cold dry air, and sulfur dioxide.
anticholinergics (atropine & ipratropium) help relieve bronchospasm. Side effects include drying resp. secretions,blurred vision, and cardiac and CNS stimulation
Magnesium sulfate a potent muscle relaxant that acts to decrease inflammation and improves pulmonary function and peak flow rate.
status asthmaticus Asthma symptoms and respiratory distress despite vigorous therapeutic measures. A medical emergency that can result in respiratory failure and death.
peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) measures the maximum flow of air that can be forcefully exhaled in 1 second
Cystic fibrosis a condition characterized by exocrine gland dysfunction that produces multisystem involvement
cystic fibrosis the most common lethal genetic illness among Caucasian children, adolescents, and young adults.
cystic fibrosis Inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. The mutated gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 7.
CFTR protein involved in the regulation of chloride and sodium channels at the surface of epithelial cells
CF clinical features increased viscosity o fmucous gland secretions, a striking elevation of sweat electrolytes, an increase in several organic and enzymatic constituents of saliva, and abnormalities in autonomic nervous system function
CF diagnosis positive sweat chloride test, absence of pancreatic enzymes, radiology, family history,etc
Created by: apriltrenary