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grade 7 science

chapter 10

prokaryote a cell with no nucleus
binary fission bacteria reproduce by a type of simple cell division
endospores a bacterium surrounded by a thick, protective membrane
flagellum a slender threadlike structure, esp. a microscopic whiplike appendage that enables many protozoa, bacteria, spermatozoa, etc., to swim
consumers An organism that generally obtains food by feeding on other organisms or organic matter due to lack of the ability to manufacture own food from inorganic sources; a heterotroph.
producers The first trophic level in a food chain in which it serves as a food source for consumers or for higher trophic levels
chloropyll a green pigment found in cyanobacteria and the chloroplasts of algae and plants
decomposers An organism whose ecological function involves the recycling of nutrients by performing the natural process of decomposition as it feeds on dead or decaying organisms.
spirilla long, spiral-shaped bacteria, move easily in a corkscrew motion, using flagella at both ends
bacilli rod-shaped bacteria, long surface area, helps them absorb nutrients, can dry out easily
cocci spherical bacteria more resistant to drying out than rod-shaped bacteria
cyanobacteria predominantly photosynthetic prokaryotic organisms containing a blue pigment in addition to chlorophyll; occur singly or in colonies in diverse habitats; important as phytoplankton
archaebacteria microorganisms that are similar to bacteria in size and simplicity of structure but radically different in molecular organization. They are now believed to constitute an ancient intermediate group between the bacteria and eukaryotes.
nitrogen-fixing bacteria consume nitrogen in the air and changes it into a form that plants can use
bioremediation the use of bacteria and other microorganisms to change pollutants into harmless chemicals, used to clean up wastes
escherichia coli a species of bacterium normally present in intestinal tract of humans and other animals; sometimes pathogenic; can be a threat to food safety
antibiotics medicines used to kill bacteria and other microorganisms
insulin a hormone produced in the pancreas by the islets of Langerhans that regulates the amount of glucose in the blood. The lack of insulin causes a form of diabetes
diabetes a metabolic disease in which the body’s inability to produce any or enough insulin causes elevated levels of glucose in the blood.
coli of or relating to bacteria normally inhabiting the intestine or colon and especially to species of the genus Escherichia
lactic-acid bacteria bacteria (LAB) are bacteria that are common to the dairy industry
pathogenic bacteria bacteria that cause bacterial infection
virus a microscopic particle that invades a cell and often destroys it
host an organism that supports a parasite
cystal shape virus array of colloid particles
sphere shape virus icosahedral or quasi-spherical viruses
cylinder shape virus The tobacco mosaic virus is shaped like a cylinder and attacks tobacco plants.
spacecraft shape virus One group of viruses attacks only bacteria.
lytic cycle The lytic cycle is one of the two cycles of viral reproduction, the other being the lysogenic cycle. The lytic cycle results in the destruction of the infected cell and its membrane.
lysogenic cycle is one of two methods of viral reproduction. Lysogeny is characterized by integration of the bacteriophage nucleic acid into the host bacterium's genome or formation of a circular replicon in the bacterium's cytoplasm
binary fission he subdivision of a cell into two or more parts and the regeneration of those parts into separate cells
eubacteria a large group typically having simple cells with rigid cell walls
cyanobacteria predominantly photosynthetic prokaryotic organisms containing a blue pigment in addition to chlorophyll; occur singly or in colonies in diverse habitat
Created by: colts