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Genetics 1-6

Introduction: Chapter 1 Exam I

1. genome 1. all the chromosomes and DNA sequences that an organism or species can possess
2. chromosome 2. the structures within living cells that contain the genetic material. Genes are located within this structure.
3. 46 human chromosomes are found in 23 pairs 3. each cell contains _____ human chromosomes found in _____ pairs
4. GFP 4. green fluorescent protein, a protein produced in jellyfish that is used as a marker
5. gene 5. a segment of DNA that produces a functional product, usually a polypeptide
6. polypeptide 6. a linear sequence of amino acids
7. traits 7. characteristics of an organism
8. nucleic acids 8. the type of macromolecules that include DNA and RNA
9. proteome 9. all the proteins that a cell makes at a given time
10. nucleotides 10. serve as the monomers for nucleic acids
11. a nitrogenous base, a five-carbon sugar, and at least one phosphate group 11. composition of a nucleotide
12. kinase 12. transfers a phosphate group from a high-energy donor molecule like ATP.
13. substrate level phosphylation 13. direct transfer of a phosphate group from a substrate to a molecule of ADP
14. oxidative phosphorylation 14. occurs in the electron transport chain. uses inorganic Pi to form ATP
15.genetic code 15. determines the order of addition of amino acids in protein synthesis via nucleotide triplets
16. four nitrogen-containing bases 16. adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine
17. transcription 17. first step in gene expression. DNA sequence is copied to mRNA
18. translation 18. mRNA is decoded to form protein
19. morphological traits 19. traits affecting the appearance of an organism
20, allele 20. an alternative form of a specific gene
21. genetic variation 21. differences in traits within a population
22. morphs 22. contrasting forms within the same species
23. molecular level 23. As to levels of organization, genes are expressed at the _____ level.
24. proteins 24. At the cellular level, function is mediated by ______.
25. organism level 25. Traits observed can be considered a phenomenon observed at the _____ level.
26. species 26. A _____ is group of organisms that maintain a particular set of attributes in nature.
27. population level 27. The occurrence of a trait within a species happens at the ______ level.
28. gene mutations 28. small or large changes within gene sequences
29. chromosome 29. Genetic variation may be the result of changes in ____ structure.
30. chromosomes 30. Structures within cells that contain the genetic material.
31. norm of reaction 31. how environmental factors influence expression of a gene.
32. diploid 32. two copies of each chromosome
33. homologous chromosomes 33. one set maternal and paternal chromosomes
34. somatic cells 34. cells not directly involved in sexual reproduction
35. gametes 35. sperm and eggs cells with a haploid number of chromosomes
36. transgenic 36. DNA isolated from one organism and transplanted into another