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Classification & Structure of Bones & Cartilages

axial skeleton Skull, Spine, Rib Cage
appendicular skeleton Upper limbs, Lower limbs, Shoulder girdle, Pelvic girdle
what is the purpose of bone markings it reveals where bones form joints w. other bones, where muscles, tendons, & ligaments were attached & where blood vessels & nerves passed
name the categories of bone markings projections, or processes that grow out from the bone (serve as sites of muscle attachment or help form joints) & depressions or cavities (indentations or opening sin the bone that often serve as condults for nerves & blood cessels
tuberosity large rounded projection; may be roughened, (rough elevated surface)
crest narrow ridge of bone; usually prominent
trochanter two massive processes on the femur
line slightly raised, elongated ridge
tubercle small rounded projection or process
epicondyle expanded region superior to a condyle
spine sharp, slender, or narrow process
process any bony prominence or projection
head (Artciulation) prominent expanded end of a bone, sometimes rounded (mostly long bones)
facet (Artculation) smooth, flat, slightly concave or conves articular surface (mostly long bones)
condyle (Articulation) rounded knob that articulates with another bone (mostly long bones)
meatus entrance to ear canal-like passageway
fossa broad, shallow depression in a bone, often serving as an articular surface
groove Long pit or furrow
fissure narrrow, slit through a bone
foramen a hole through a bone, usually rounded with concave area around opening, entrances for nerves
name the 4 classifications of bones long, short, flat & irregular bones
suture Fibrous, interlocking joint of the crainal bones
mandible lower jawbone
maxillae 2 bones fused in a median suture; form the upper jawbone & part of the orbits
list the vertebra column Cervical (7), Thoracic (12), Lumber (5), Sacrum (5, fused), Coccyx (4, fused)
Torus Bony thickening (occipital bun)
Protuberance Bony outgrowth or protuding part
Sulcus Long, wide groove
True Ribs Attach directly to the sternum, Ribs 1 - 7
False Ribs Attach to the 7th Costal Cartilage, Ribs 8 - 10
Floating Ribs No anterior attachment, Ribs 11 - 12
Carpals Wrist Bones (8)
Metacarpals Palm (5)
Phalanges Fingers (14) / toes (14)
Tarsals Ankle (7)
Metatarsals Sole (5)
Teeth Mineralized structures that function to masticate (chew/break down) food, and aid in speech
Bones Serve as a protector of organs, produce blood cells, store minerals and fat, and serve as a frame work for support and attachment for muscles, tendons and ligaments
Cortical Bone Dense bone typically found on external surfaces and forms the walls of the shafts of long bones
Trabecular Bone Porous, spongy bone that is typically found at the ends of long bones, and in vertebral bodies and flat ones.
Enamel Covers external surface of the crown. No living cells and no blood supply. Hardest substance in the body.
Ventral Toward the Front (or belly)
Dorsal Toward the back or spine (used differently for feet and hands)
Anterior Toward the ventral side (only used in humans)
Posterior Toward the dorsal side (only used in humans)
Superior Above
Medial Toward the median plane or middle
Inferior Below
Lateral Away from the median plane or middle
Proximal Closer to the point of attachment or origin
Distal Farther to the point of attachment or origin
Cephalic Toward the head or superior end
Rostral Toward the forehead or nose (used with skulls only)
Caudal Toward the tail or inferior end
Neck between the head and shaft
Canal Tubular passage or tunnel
Determination of Sex by bones Pelvis, Skull, Whole Skeleton
Determination of Ancestry Skull
Dertmination of Sex: Pelvis Pelvis is the best bone (differences due to adaptations to childbirth)1.females have wider subpubic angle 2. females have a sciaticnotch > 90 3. females have a broad pelvic inlet 4. females have a broad illium
Determination of Sex: Cranium Crests and ridges more pronounced in males, Chin significantly more square in males, Mastoid process wide and robust in males, Forehead slopes more in males
Determination of Race: Skull Nasal index, Nasal Spine, Prognathism-extended jaw, Shape of eye orbits
Antomical Position Is a stance in which a person stands erect with the feet flat on the floor and close together, arms at the sides, and the palms and face directed forward.
Osteology Study of Bones
Odontology Study of Teeth
Morphology Shape of bones and teeth
Incisors First four teeth
Canine (Cuspid) fifth tooth
Premolars (Bicuspid) sixth and seventh tooth
First and second Molars eighth and nineth tooth
Third Molar (wisdom tooth) tenth tooth
Created by: Brina