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Environmental Test

Ch. 8 and 9 Test

A group of the same species living in the same area at the same time population
number of individuals of the same species in that live in a given unit of area density of a population
one organism benefits and one is harmed parasitism
both organisms benefit mutualism
one organism benefits and one is unaffected commensalism
pattern of distribution of organisms in a population population dispersion
number of individuals area contains population size
three types of population dispersion clumped, random, even
most common type of population dispersion clumped
factors that are effected by number of individuals in a population in a particular area density dependent factor
factors that have no relation to number of individuals but instead are related to natural disasters density independent factors
example of a density dependent factor disease
example of density independent factor earthquake
maximum number of offspring that a given organism can produce reproductive potential
three factors that influence reproductive potential individuals produce more at a time, more often or earlier in life
factor that affects reproductive potential most producing earlier in life
number of organisms of a population that a particular environment can support over time S-shaped carrying capacity
rate at which a population would grow if it had unlimited resources J-curve exponential growth
fastest rate at which a population can grow (limited by reproductive potential) biotic potential
mathematical expression that expresses the GROWTH of a population change in size= births - deaths
mathematical expression that expresses the DECLINE of a population population change= (births + immigration) - (Deaths + Emigration)
two or more organisms living in close association of one another symbiosis
the study of human population growth demography
difference in population growth of developed and developing countries developed has slower population growth and developing has rapid growth
happened in the 1880's that led to a population explosion Industrial and Scientific Revolutions
Classification of members of a population into groups according to age or the distribution of members of a population in terms of age groups and helps demographers make predictions age structures
makes up half of our adult population in the US baby boomers
percent of newborn individuals in a population that can be expected to survive to a given age survivorship
survivorship curve where late loss population live to an old age type 1
survivorship curve where constant loss population due at all ages type 2
survivorship curve where early loss population die at young age type 3
curves that represent populations that are stable type 1
curves that represent population that are growing slowly type 3
number of births per 1,000 women of childbearing age fertility rate
average number of children each parent must have in order to "replace themselves" slightly above 2 replacement value
year US fell below replacement level 1972
average number of kids a woman has during reproductive ages total fertility rate
world's average fertility rate 2.7
fertility rate in developing countries 3.0
fertility rate in developed countries 1.6
average length of time an individual is expected to live life expectancy
main source of fuel in poor countries wood
Contributions to waterborne diseases water supply being used as sewage disposal
three examples of water borne diseases dysentery, typhoid, chlorera
farmland that can be sued to grow crops arable land
why arable land is in danger growing populations= agricultural housing and natural habitats
what has had the greatest effect of human population death rates have gone down
why the US population is still increasing even though we are only at replacement level or slightly below immigration
5 symptoms of overpopulation suburban sprawl, polluted rivers, barren land, inadequate housing,and overcrowded schools
Created by: aemiller