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Genki II Lesson 17 G

Genki II Lesson 17 Grammar (Incomplete)

QuestionAnswer
そうです, tenses only そうです and そうだ.
~って can replace そうです in informal speech.
~って, more info informal variant of the quotation particle と.
~って, expansion can replace と言っていました.
~って, Mary says she's busy today. She says she has an exam tomorrow. メアリーさん、今日はいそがしいって。あした、しけんがあるんだって。
~って, additional use can replace the particle と before verbs like 言う.
~って, additional use, A: What did Akira say? B: He said he ate too much chocolate. A: あきらさんは何て言ってた? B: チョコレートを食べすぎたって言ってた。
~って, spelling after ん
~たら one of the several words that refer to condition (if) dependence.
A たら B "B is valid, contingent on the fulfillment of A."
A たら B, second version ". . . the event, action, or situation in B is realized if and when the condition A is met."
~たら, "I will buy kimono if and when I go to Japan." 日本に言ったら、着物を買います。
~たらどうですか, extra note same たら. Means "how is it if."
~たら, form short form past tense endings of predicates. Takes verbs, adjectives, and nouns.
~たら, another use 1 Sometimes, A is a possible condition and B is the consequence which then follows. Whether or not condition is met is mostly an open issue. Can be very likely, or very unlikely.
~たら, another use 1, "We will go for a walk; if the weather is fine." 天気がよかったら、さんぽに行きます。
~たら, another use 1, "I will ask about it, if I see Professor Yamashita." 山下先生に会ったら、そのことを聞こうと思います。
~たら, another use 1, "If somebody is a Japanese person, then they will probably know this word." 日本人だったら、この言ばを知っているでしょう。
~たら, another use 1, "I would send money to Amnesty International, if I should win the lottery." たからくじに当たったら、アムネスティにお金をおくります。
~たら, time B cannot occur before A. B occurs when A occurs or later.
~たら, another use 2 "Sometimes, the たら clause describes a very probably condition, and the second clause describes the event that will take palce AS SOON AS the situation is realized."
~たら, another use 2, another way to look at it "With this type of sentence, たら simply arranges future events and activities in a temporal sequence."
~たら, another use 2, "I will call you when I get home tonight." 今晩、うちにかえったら、電話します。
~たら, another use 2, "Let's go out and have some fun once we are done with the homework." しゅくだいがおわったら、あそびに行きましょう。
~たら, another use 2, note on interpretation Could be the same as the way shown earlier. Depends on the facts of the real world.
~たら, note on usage cannot describe a case where B holds in spite of A being false.
~たら, another use 3 "can describe a condition that is unreal and contrary to fact. With this type sentence, you express a purely hypothetical condition and its probable result."
~たら, another use 3, "If I were a cat, I would be asleep all day long." 私がねこだったら、一日中ねているでしょう。
~たら, another use 3, "If I had money, I would buy a car." お金があったら、車を買うんですけど。
~なくてもいいです Describes ". . . what you do not need to do."
~なくてもいいです, "You do not need to take off your shoes." くつをぬがなくてもいいです。
~なくてもいいです, "The present does not need to be anything expensive." プレゼントは高くなくてもいいです。
みたいです follows a noun and express the idea that something or somebody resembles the thing or the person described by the noun.
みたいです, more info usually the resemblance is noted in terms of external characteristics, but not necessarily so.
みたいです, "My dad looks/acts like Colonel Sanders, the KFC founder. (Has a portly figure? Has a white goatee? Stands on the street 24/7?" 私の父はカーネルおじさんみたいです。
みたいです, "That person over there is like a gorilla. (Sturdily built? Thumps his chest often? Good at climbing trees?)" あの人はゴリラみたいです。
みたいです, other use ". . . can also follow a verb and expresses the idea that something 'appears to be the case.'"
みたいです, other use, syntax Can follow the affirmative and negative present and past short forms.
みたいです, other use, "It looks like it has rained." 雨がふったみたいです。
みたいです, other use, "It looks like that person is hungry." あの人はおなかがすいているみたいです。
みたいです, other use, "It looks like that person did not sleep last night." あの人はきのうの夜ねかったみたいです。
みたいです, other use, "It looks like the professor is not coming to school tomorrow." 先生は明日学校に来ないみたいです。
みたいです, other use 2 "You can use [it] to talk about yourself, when you are not clear about the situation you are in."
みたいです, other use 2, "It looks like I have left my wallet at home." さいふをわすれたみたいです。
みたいです, adjective note can follow adjectives, but it is far more common to use そうです with adjectives.
前に can use the present tense short form with this to describe the event before which something happens.
前に, form verb A (short present) + 前に verb B B before A.
前に, "I will go to Tokyo one more time before I go back home." 国に帰る前に、もう一度東京に行きます。
前に, "I studied japanse for one semester before I came to Japan." 日本に来る前に、一がっき日本語を勉強しました。
前に, tense info verb preceding it always in the presnt tense, regardless of sentence tense.
~てから describes an event after which another thing happens.
~てから, form verb A + てから verb B A, and then B./B after A.
~てから, "I studied and then wrote letters to my friends." 勉強してから、友だちに手紙を書きました。
~てから, "Why don't we (start) eat(ing) after Ken has arrived." けんさんが来てから、食べましょう。
~てから, additional usage ". . . can also describe the state of B that has held true SINCE the event A."
~てから, additional usage, "I have been feeling very lonely since my cat died." ねこが死んだから、とてもさびしいです。
Created by: ncommons