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Science Exam

1st Semester Exam Stack

What are the three major sections of the Earth? Crust, Mantle, and Core
What is the lithosphere? The outer-most layer of the Earth that we walk on.
What is the asthenosphere? the "plastic" like layer that the lithosphere floats and moves on.
What is the mesosphere? the strong, inner layer of the Earth
What is the outer core? liquid iron
What is the inner core? Solid Iron
What element make up the inner core of the Earth? Iron
What does the material produce that is detectable at the surface? Magnetic Fields
What does a magnet produce that can be detected with iron fillings and compasses at the surface? Magnetic Fields
What direction does a compass point? Why? North...it is drawn to the South Magnetic Pole
Why are some maerials able to be magnetized whild others can't? Some atoms can aline and others can's.
What is the geologic time scale? A timeline of Earth's history A tool to study Ear's history
Why did scientists create the geologic time scale? To make studying Earth's history easier
Name the 4 units of time on the geologic time scale from longest to shortest. Eon, Era, Period, Epoch
Name and tell who ruled 3 eras of Earth's history. Palozoic(Marine) Mesozoic(Reptile) Cenozoic(Mammals)
Which era are we in right now? Cenozoic
What are tectonic plate? Chuncks of earth that move and fit together
What is the theory of plate tectonics? Plates of the Earth move and fit together
What are curents that bring hot materials up ad cooler materials down? Convection currents do to the tectonic plates
What do convection currents do to tectonic plates? Make them move
Name the area where two plates collide. Convergant Boundries
Name the area where plates move away from each other. Divergaent Boundries
Name the area where two plates slide past each other. Transform Boundries
What process creates new ocean floor? sea-floor spreading
Which process creates mountain ranges? Convergent
Which process is the same as sea-floor spreading? Divergent
When plates rub against each other, what occurs? Earthquake
Which boundries resut in earthquakes? Transform, convergent, divergent
If there is a break in the crust, what is created? fault, volcano, fissure
What theory supports the idea that the Earth has changed quickly? Catastrophism
What theory supprts the idea that the Earth has changed slowly? Uniformitarism
How do igneous rocks form? Magma Cools
Name the igneous rock formations inside the crust of the Earth. Intrusive igneous rock (Dike, Sill, Batholith, Stock)
Name the igneous rock formations outside the crust of the Earth. Extrusive igneous rock (Dike, Volcanic Neck)
How do metamorphic rocks form? Heat & Pressure
How do sedimentry rocks form? Sediment packed together
What are three types of sedimentary rocks? Clastic, Chemical, Organic
Which one is made from sediment packed together? Clastic
Which one is made from sediment crystallizing together? Chemical
Which one is made from dead bodies being packed together? Organic
What are the parts of the rock that take place above the surface? Erosion, Weathering, Deposition, and Solidifaction
What are the parts of the rock cycle that take place below the surface? Compaction and Cementation, Metamorphism, Melting, Cooling
What are the 8 parts of the rock cycle? Erosion, Weathering, Depostion, Solidifaction, Compaction and Cementation, Metamorphism, Melting, Cooling
What is the top layer of the soil caled? Top Soil
What is the undweathered rock called that is found below the surface? Bedrock
What ingredients make up the soil? Sand, CLay, Silt, Water, Air
What is the major ingredientin soil? Rock Fragments
What type of particles are found in soil? sand, clay, silt, water, clay, air, humus
Why is infilation important for plants in soil? They get water and nutrients
What is leaching? Nutrient are washed out of soil.
Are all soils nutrient-rich? No
What is another name for soil layers? Soil Horizons
What kind of environment has very rich soil for growing crops? Temperate Forest and Grasslands
What important role do organisms have in keeping soil "healthy" for plants? They break down the ground and "process" the material(poop)
What causes a sinkhole in the Earth? The ground caves in
What happens to the limestone under the surface of the Earth? It dissolves because of carbonic acid.
What causes the caverns and caves in the Earth? The limestone breaks down and errodes away
What does a glacier do to the surface of the Earth? It moves materials and breaks down rocks
What is the currently happening to glaciers of the world? They are melting.
What can happen when a glacier melts? flooding
Was Indiana ever covered by a glacier? Yes
Would you find fossils in metamorphic rock? No, Too much heat and pressure
Name 5 types of enviornments where you could find fossils. Amber, Asphalt, Sediment, Ice
Is there fossil evidence to show that envieronments have changed over time? Yes
What kind of events may have changed Earth's surface over time? Glaciers, Volcanoes, Earthquakes, Asteroids, Floods
What is mass? How much matter an object has.
What is volume? How much space an object takes up
What is density? How much matter is in a given volume D=M/V
What is weight? how much gravitaional force pulls on an object
What are the units of mass? Grams or Kilograms
What are the units of volume? Cm cubed for a solid/ mL or Liters for liquids
What are the units of density? Grams per cm cubed
What are the units of weight? Newtons
What instruments are used to measure each property? Mass- Triple Beam Balance Volume-Graduated Cylinder(liquid)or Ruler(solid) Density- Triple Beam Balace & graduated cylinder or Ruler Weight- spring scale
Created by: emanning175