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Juvenile Court Cases

CRIM 309

Kent v. United States modified due process protection for juveniles. waiver (transfer to adult court) without a hearing is invalid
In re Gault in cases that may result in commitment to institution, juveniles have right to: notice, counsel, question/cross-examine, protection against self-incrimination
In re Winship the standard of evidence for adjudication of delinquency should be "proof beyond a reasonable doubt"
McKiever v. Pennsylvania juries would not enhance the accuracy of adjudication process and could adversely affect the informal atmosphere of the non-adversarial juvenile court hearing process
Breed v. Jones double jeopardy applies at adjudication hearing as soon as evidence is presented
Swisher v. Brady subordinate judicial officers may hear delinquency trials; a judge is not required
Schall v. Martin preventative detention of juveniles is appropriate tool of crime. rationale used to justify: juveniles are dangerous, in some form of custody, need to be protected from themselves, preventative detention is not used as punishment
Fare v. Michael miranda warnings given to juveniles applies the same way it does for adults
West v. United States juvenile confessions must be voluntary under the "totality of circumstances" - youth's age, education, intelligence - length and conditions of interrogations - youth's ability to confer with parents and other adults
Tinker v. Des Moines students do not "shed their rights" at the school gates. schools do not have absolute authority over students
New Jersey v. TLO in school, a search is considered reasonable and within constraints of Fourth Amendment if there is reasonable suspicion that criminal activity is occurring. Search must be conducted by school officials
Roger v. Simmons death penalty is cruel and unusual punishment for youth less than 18 years of age at the time of offense and is unconstitutional under 18th amendment
Created by: Kiribati