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World music culture

Final exam

Rhythmic Expression Highly complex, in comparison to the use of melodic and harmonic elements
As with other indigenous cultures around the world, students of music depend completely on their teacher for the transmission of musical knowledge, including its socio-cultural and religious context. How does it compare to the West? Historically a lack of technology, libraries, and musical scores.(maybe stores)
The aspect of musical structure for a typical percussion ensemble...what? the aspect of musical structure that reflects improvisation is in how many times a 'fixed' pattern is played. Often depends on the story enacted or in the communication between the dancers and the master drummer.
What does the master drummer typically do for a typical percussion ensemble? Performs a 'call' pattern that is distinguishable for each member of the ensemble, bringing them in one at a time. Instances of very 'jumbled' sounds are caused by the master drummer signaling each member to shift their rhythms to 'morph' into a new piece
What do drama performances in sub-saharan African communities do? Typically make use of the expanses of space throughout a village
What is the most common poly-rhythmic expression? the simultaneous performance of a duple and triple rhythm.
What could happen from a solo performance on a djembe? may result in the performer experiencing 'trance' effects.
The maps of the continent of africa are different from what era to what era? and in what ways? pre-colonial era to the colonial era, in terms of disregard for the indigenous cultures and natural geographic boundaries that evolved over centuries
What is different for an african audience versus an audience from the West? Why and how? The range of acceptable frequencies per pitch is wider than what is acceptable in the west.
Why is the range of acceptable frequencies per pitch wider in Africa than the West? Indigenous instruments hold their tune less due to the materials used; technological resources are often lacking to keep Western instruments in good working order
What are 2 indigenous sub-saharan african instruments? What makes them special? Kora and Mbira. Typically very comfortable physically to use.
where's the Kora from? Why special? Explain it indigenous to sub-saharan africa. comfortable to use. Harp-like instrument has two rows of strings presented at an angle with step-wise pitches played in an alternating fashion from side to side.
Wheres the Mbira from? Why special? Explain it Indigenous to sub-saharan africa. Comfortable to play. held in very natural way in terms of the position of the hands that allow for the thumbs to be free to comfortably activate the keys.
What is a 'griot'? African story-teller that accompanies himself on a Kora
What instrument is most associated with African country of Zimbabwe? Mbira
What instrument is most associated with African country of Ghana? Djembe
What is the music of South Africa that reflects a combination of indigenous and colonial influences, particularly in terms of the use of brass instruments, yet, seemingly out of tune and used in a highly rhythmic manner? 'High-life' music
The sound of what group originated in the use of Western-oriented hymn singing by Christian missionaries? Their sound contains indigenous influences, including added vocal sounds and traditional dance movements. 'Ladysmith Black Mambazo'
What is a common feature of musical instruments of sub-saharan Africa? 'added sounds'
What do 'added sounds' do? to create sounds like trills, clicking, buzzing or rattle effects that accompany vocal or rhythmic expressions
How is a 'mouth bow' used? Performer uses his mouth for both resonating and pitch changing effects.
what country is the berimbau from? Brazil
Describe a berimbau? a gourd is attached to the stick and serves as a resonator
Where and what can the brazilian berimbau be traced to? the sub-saharan mouthbow
What kind of songs are the sub-saharan berimbau used for? used to accompany songs with historical, religious or moral themes that are passed down from generation to generation
What is the brazilian berimbau accompany? Capoeira
what is capoeira? type of martial arts that evolved from efforts by slaves to use music (berimbau and other rhythm instruments) performed in a large circle to disguise their martial arts practice
how do Caribbean islands each have their own cultural expression? influences that range from Ameri-indian origins, African origins, colonization, and other international influences
Music of the caribbean can be classified according to 4 types of styles? 1. popular 2. folk and traditional 3. carnivals, festivals, and competitions 4. non-caribbean styles
what are 2 examples of a 'transnational' influence 1. use of steel drum band in fort myers community 2. use of 'big band' music from U.S on streets of Jamaica
The rhythmic 'clave' pattern is highly influential to determine the particular style of what music performed? what are the 2 styles? 'caribbean'. from salsa to soca
Where is the 'Tuk Band' from? Barbados
What is the 'Tuk Band' an example of? How? the influence of colonization. The use of 'fife and drum' instruments originally from Britain
Reggae is known for the ____ feeling of its sound. How does it do this? 'up'. with emphasis on the 2nd and 4th beats
What 4 things does reggae reflect? 1. convergence of religious faith 2. political unrest 3. the need for a new musical sound(beyond the 'bid band' sound from the USA) 4.and in the person of Bob Marley
Who traveled the 'silk road'? 'Gypsies'
what did 'gypsies' prefer to be called? Romany people
What church has a long history of migration from India? Romany church
The Romany church service could include what 4 elements? Hinduism, Catholicism, Islamic, and Russian Orthodox faiths
What kind of instruments do Romany children learn to play? why these? Stringed instruments. for entertainment purposes use a method similar to 'suzuki'
what is 'suzuki'? An aural method, typically without the use of printed musical scores
Explain 'Ganga'? singing style performed with members in a tight half-circle, with pitches simultaneously sung out of tune to achieve a vibrato effect.
What is 'Ganga' similar to? how a Balinese gamelan is tuned, also to achieve a vibrato effect
Composers of ___ period often turned to the folk music of eastern Europe for their inspiration regarding new compositional approaches. 'Romantic Period'
Composers of the 'romantic period' often turned to the folk music of _____ for their inspiration regarding new compositional approaches. Eastern Europe
What instrument can be used by an irish group or to accompany American folk songs. it can be traced to north Africa. Banjo
What is a similar looking instrument to a banjo? 'banjar' (arabic name)
What instrument is clearly traceable in its migration throughout the world? the Accordian
where and what instruments are highly similar to the accordian? India-the harmonium, Eastern Europe-Polka Bands, Mexico-via German migration into texas
The accordians nature allows it to have what? Modal and drone effects
An improvised folk song from Finland can sound identical to what? middle eastern maqam or a raga from India
The hammered dulcimer is commonly used in what type of music? American 'Roots'
The hammered dulcimer is easily traceable throughout the world known as what? 'yangquin' in China, 'santour' in middle East, and 'cymbolum' in Eastern Europe
What is the primary distinction between 'polka' music and other forms of Eastern European music? the ease in which 'polka' music is used to accompany dance.
what kind of music is Polka similar in melodic and harmonic structures? 'Klezmer'
What makes 'Klezmer' different than 'Polka'? 'Klezmer' is more rhythmically complex, hence, difficult to dance to.
What people are from the barrier islands off the coast of South Carolina and Georgia? Gullah people
Where can the musical expression of Gullah people be traced? Directly to West Africa, including Sierra Leone
What does John Blacking say? "Music... is in itself an adventure into the reality of the sensuous and social capabilities of the species, and an experiencing of becoming in which individual consciousness is nurtured within the collective consciousness of the community."
John Blacking "____... is in itself an adventure into the reality of the sensuous and social capabilities of the species, and an experiencing of becoming in which individual consciousness is nurtured within the collective consciousness of the community." Music
John Blacking "Music... is in itself an adventure into the reality of the ___ and social ____ of the species, and an experiencing of becoming in which individual consciousness is nurtured within the collective ___ of the community." sensuous, capabilities, consciousness
John Blacking "___... is in itself an ____ into the reality of the ___ and __ capabilities of the species, and an experiencing of becoming in which ____ consciousness is nurtured within the collective consciousness of the ____." Music,adventure, sensuous, Social, individual, Community
Merriams functions of music-Emotional Expression feeling, mood, without words
Merriams functions of music-Aesthetic enjoyment enjoy the beauty of it
Merriams functions of music-Entertainment light, fun, leisure
Merriams functions of music-Communication concrete and/or abstract
Merriams functions of music-Symbolic Representation music standing for something else
Merriams functions of music-Physical response 'auditory' connected to 'motor'
Merriams functions of music-Enforcing conformity to social norms behavior
Merriams functions of music-Validation of social institutions and religious rituals now
Merriams functions of music-Contribution to continuity and stability of culture over time
Merriams functions of music-Contribution to the integration of society diverse members
Created by: peckom