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First Aid - Biochem - Nutrition

Fat Soluble vitamins A, D, E, K absorption dependent on gut(ileum) and pancreas, toxicity more common than for water-soluble b/c they accumulate in fat > malabsorption dz. = CF can cause fat soluble vitamin deficiencies
Water soluble vitamins B1-B7, B12, C, Biotin, Folate - all wash out easily from body except B12 and folate(stored in the liver), B-complex deficiencies often result in dermatitis, glossitis, and diarrhea
Vitamin A (retinol) - function antioxidant, part of visual pigments, nml differentiation of epithelial cells to specialized tissues (pancreatic cells and mucus secreting cells), used topically for acne and wrinkles, found in liver and leafy vegetables
Vit. A deficiency night blindness and dry skin
Vit. A overdose arthralgias, fatigue, headache, skin change, sore throat, alopecia, teratogenic(cleft palate and cardiac abnml.) pregnancy test before isoretinoin (can treat measles)
Vit. B1 (thiamine) - function in thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) a cofactor for enzymes, pyruvate dehydrogenase (glycolysis), alpha-ketoglutarate DH (TCA), transketolase (HMP shunt), and branched chain AA dehydrogenase
Vit. B1 (thiamine) - deficiency impaired glucose breakdown > ATP depletion, highly aerobic tissues(brain and heart) affected first > wenickes (ataxia, confusion) and beri beri (muscle waste, cardiac failure), malnutrition, alcoholism
Vit. B2 (riboflavin) - function and deficiency cofactor in oxidation and reduction (FADH2) (FAD and FMN are derived from riboflavin) - cheilosis (inflammation of lips, scaling and fissures at corners of mouth) or corneal vascularization
Vit. B3 (niacin) - function part of NAD+, NADP+, made from tryptophan, syn. requires B6
Vit. B3 (niacin) - deficiency D's of pellagra = diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia. Glossitis. pellagra. decreased vit. B6.
Vit. B3 (niacin) - overdose facial flushing due to pharmalogic doses from tx. of hyperlipidemia > excess untreated corn in diet can cause pellagra (b/c untreated B3 in corn not absorbable)
Vit. B5 (pantothenate) - function and deficiency essential part of CoA (cofactor for acyl transfers) and fatty acid syn., deficiency = dermatitis, enteritis, alopecia, adrenal insufficiency
Vit. B6 (pyridoxine) - function converted to pyridoxal phosphate, cofactor in transamination (ALT/AST) decarboxylation rxns. glycogen phosphorylase, cystathionine syn. and heme syn. needed for syn. of B3 (niacin) from tryptophan
Vit. B6 (pyridoxine) - deficiency convulsions, hyperirritability, peripheral neuropathy (deficiency inducible by INH and oral contraceptives), and sideroblastic anemia
Created by: Smukadam