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Cellular

First Aid - Biochem - Cellular

QuestionAnswer
Cell cycle phases Mitosis (shortest phase): prophase-metaphase-anaphase-telophase, Interphase (G1, Go), (Rb, p53), S phase (diploid > haploid), G2 , mitosis (haploid back to diploid)
Cell cycle checkpoints CDK's, cyclines, cyclin-CDK complexes, and tumor suppressors
Cell types: 3 1. permanent = remain in G0, regenerate from stem cells (neurons, skeletal/cardiac muscle, RBC's) 2. stable(quiescent) = enter from G1 from Go when stimulated (hepato/lymphocytes) 3. Labile = never go to G0 divide rapidly with short G1 (bone marrow, gut,.
CDK's cyclin-dependent kinases, constitutive and inactive. serine-threonine kinases (phosphorylators)
cyclins regulatory proteins that control cell cycle events, phase specific, and activate CDK's
cyclin-CDK complexes must be activated and inactivated for cell cycle to progress
tumor suppressors Rb and p53 normally inhibit G1-S progression; mutations in the genes = unrestrained growth
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum syn of secretory (exported) proteins and N-linked oligosaccharide addition to many proteins - mucus secreting goblet cells of small intestine and antibody secreting plasma cells are rich in RER (studded with ribosomes)
Free ribosomes unattached to any membranes, site of syn of cytosolic and organellar proteins
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum syn of steroids and detoxification of drugs and poisons - liver hepatocytes and steroid hormone producing cells of adrenal cortex are rich in SER
Golgi Apparatus 1.distribution center of proteins and lipids from ER to plasma membrane, lysosomes, and secretory vesicles 2.modifies N-oligosaccharides on asparagine 3.adds O-oligosaccharides to serine and thereonine residues
Golgi apparatus - continued functions 4.addn of mannose-6-P to specific lysosmal proteins > targets proteins to the lysosome 5.proteoglycan assembly from core proteins 6.sulfation of sugars in proteoglycans and of selected tyrosine on proteins
Golgi apparatus -- flow Nuclear envelope > RER > Golgi (COP II) (golgi > ER (COPI)) >> trans-Golgi > lysosome, cytosol, or secretory storage (Clathrin using endosomes - receptor mediation endocytosis))
Vesicular trafficking proteins COPI = retrograde, Golgi > ER COPII = anterograde, RER > cis golgi Clathrin = trans-golgi > lysosome, cytosol, plasma mem through endosomes (receptor mediated endocytosis)
microtubulues cylindrical structure composed of helical array of polymerized dimers of alpha and beta tubulin. each dimer has 2 GTP bound. incorporated into flagella, cilia, mitotic spindles. grows slow,collapses quickly. and slow transport in neurons.
molecular motor proteins transport cellular cargo toward opposite ends of microtubule tracks powered by ATP hydrolysis. 1.Dynein = towards cell center (retrograde) along microtubules 2.Kinesin = away from center > periphery
Cilia structure 9+2 arrangement of microtubules - axonemal dynein = ATPase that links peripheral 9 doublets and causes bleeding of cilium by differential sliding of doublets
Kartagener's syndrome immotile cilia b/c dynein arm defect, male and female infertility (sperm immotile), bronchiectasis and recurrent sinusitis (bacteria and particles not pushed out)
Cytoskeletal elements provides cell with shape and structure, components = actin (microfilaments) and myosin, microtubules, intermediate filaments
Actin and Myosin - location microvilli, muscle contraction, cytokinesis, adherens junctions
Microtubules - location cilia, flagella, mitotic spindle, neurons, centrioles
Intermediate filaments - location vimentin, desmin, cytokeratin, glial fibrillary acid proteins, neurofilaments
plasma membrane composition 1.asymmetric lipid bilayer 2.cholesterol, phospholipids, sphingolipids, glycolipids,and proteins 3.high cholesterol or long saturated fatty acid content > increased melting temperature and decreased fluidity
Collagen - basics most abundant protein in the body, organizes and strengthens extracellular matrix.
Type I collagen 90%, bone, skin, tendon, dentin, fascia, cornea, late wound repair
Type II collagen cartilage
Type III collagen skin, blood vessels, uterus, fetal tissues, granulation tissue
Type IV collagen basement membrane or basal lamina
Collagen Synthesis - in fibroblasts - main steps 1.synthesis (RER) (preprocollagen) **(Scurvy)** 2.hydroxylation (ER) *vitamin C / **(OI)** 3.glycosylation (ER) (procollagen/triple helix) 4.exocytosis
Collagen Synthesis - outside of fibroblasts - main steps 5.proteolytic processing (tropocollagen) **(Ehlers-Danlos)** 6.cross-linking (collagen fibrils)
collagen synthesis (RER) translation of alpha collagen chains (preprocollagen) usually Gly-X-Y polypeptide (X,Y = proline, hydroxyproline, or hydroxylysine)
collagen hydroxylation (ER) hydroxylation of specific proline and lysine residues (requires Vit. C)
collagen glycosylation (ER) glycosylation of pro-alpha-chain lysine residues and formation of procollagen (triple helix of 3 collagen alpha chains)
collagen exocytosis exocytosis of procollagen into extracellular space
collagen proteolytic processing (outside fibroblast) cleavage of terminal regions of procollagen transforms it into insoluble tropocollagen
collagen cross linking (outside fibroblast) reinforcement of many staggered tropocollagen molecules by covalent lysine-hydroxylysine cross-linkage (by lysyl oxidase) to make collagen fibrils
Ehler's Danlos Syndrome Type III collagen (skin, blood vessels..) hyperextensible skin, tendency to bleed (bruising), hypermobile joints, 6 types, inheritance and severity vary, autosomal dominant or recessive, joint dislocation, berry aneurysms, organ rupture
Marfan's syndrome/elastin elastin = stretchy protein in lungs, large arteries, ligaments, vocal cords, ligaments to connect vertebrae, tropoelastin with fibrillin scaffolding > Marfan's = defect in fibrillin (fib is protein in connective tissue) (also effects TGF-B *problem)
Created by: Smukadam
 

 



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