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For study

What is temperature? A measure of the average kinetic energy of the individual particles in an object.
What is matter made up of? Tiny particles called atoms and molecules.
The faster particles move... The more kinetic energy they have.
Where is the Fahrenheit scale most commonly used? In the United States of America.
What is the freezing point of water in the Fahrenheit scale? 32 degrees Fahrenheit.
What is the boiling point of water in the Fahrenheit scale? 212 degres Fahrenheit.
What is absolute zero in the Fahrenheit scale? -460 degrees Fahrenheit.
What is absolute zero? The lowest temperature possible. The temperature where no more energy can be removed from matter.
How many intervals are in between the freezing point and boiling point of water in the Fahrenheit scale? 180 intervals.
What is the most commonly used temperature scale in the world? The Celsius scale.
What is the freezing point in the Celsius scale? 0 degrees Celsius.
What is the boiling point in the Celsius scale? 100 degrees Celsius
How many intervals are in between the freezing point and boiling point of water in the Celsius scale? 100 intervals.
What is absolute zero in the Celsius scale? -273 degrees Celsius.
Where is the Kelvin scale most commonly used? In physical science.
What is the freezing point of water in Kelvins? 273 Kelvins.
What is the boiling point of water in Kelvins? 373 Kelvins.
How many intervals are in between the freezing point of water and the boiling point of water in the Kelvin scale? 100 intervals.
What is absolute zero in Kelvins? 0 Kelvins.
What is thermal energy? The total energy of all the particles in a substance. Also known as internal energy.
The more particles a substance has at a given temperature... The more thermal energy it has.
Thermal energy does not depend on just temperature and the number of particles in a substance... It also depends on how particles are arranged.
Why are there no negative numbers on the Kevin scale? The Kelvin scale is defined so 0 is absolute zero.
What is heat? The movement of thermal energy from a substance at a higher temperature to a lower temperature.
What does heat also involve? The transfer of mechanical energy.
How are work and heat similar? They both are energy transfers and both are measured in joules.
How can heat be transferred? By conduction, convection, radiation.
What is conduction? The transfer of heat from one particle to another without the movement of matter itself.
What is convection? The transfer of heat through water or air.
What happens in a convection current? The hot water or air goes up and the cold water or air goes down.
What is radiation? The transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves. It does not require matter to transfer thermal energy.
What direction does heat travel? Heat travels from warm to cold so both things can be the same temperature.
What is a conductor? A material the conducts heat well and makes the heat transfer faster. Examples are different types of metals.
What is an insulator? A material that does not conduct heat well and makes the heat transfer slower. Examples are air, rugs and cork.
How are insulators used? Insulators are used to keep people and buildings warm.
What is specific heat? The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of a substance by i kelvin.
Do different materials have the same specific heat? No. Different materials need more or less heat to raise the temperature by the same amount.
What can ice do? Ice can keep stuff warm. This happens because thermal energy is transferred as water becomes ice.
What are the 3 states of matter? Solid, liquid and gas.
What makes matter differ from one state to another? The arrangement of particles.
What are the properties of a solid? The particles are packed together and cannot move so the solid retains its shape and volume.
What are the properties of a liquid? The particles are close together and can move so they have a definite volume but not shape.
What are the properties of a gas? The particles expand to fill all space available so they have no definite shape or volume.
What is a change of state? The physical change from one state of matter to another.
Where is there a change of state. Between a liquid and solid and a liquid and a gas.
What does the state of substance depend on? The amount of thermal energy.
What are the particle speeds? Gas is fastest. Liquid is second. Solid is last.
Matter will change from one state to another if... Thermal energy is absorbed or released.
Thermal energy goes up... solid goes to liquid and liquid goes to gas.
Thermal energy goes down ... gas goes to liquid and liquid goes to solid.
During a change of state... the addition or loss of thermal energy changes arrangement of particles.
The solid liquid changes of state melting and freezing
solid to liquid melting. it occurs when a solid absorbs thermal energy. This temperature is known as a boiling point.
liquid to solid freezing. it occurs when a liquid loses thermal energy. the temperature is known as a freezing point.
Is the freezing and melting point the same sometimes? yes.
Liquid to gas vaporization it occurs when a liquid absorbs thermal energy. the particles move fast enough to escape as gas. This temp is known as boiling point.
What happens during vaporization When bubbles rise to surface of liquid they evaporate when liquid is heated it boils
gas to liquid condensation it occurs when gas loses thermal energy
Thermal expansion the expanding of matter. this happens when thermal energy increases particles spread out and the substance expands. an example is a thermometer, teeth or a thermostat.
How Thermal expansion Examples Work A Thermometer has a liquid that rises when heated and falls when cooled. teeth have expanding properties that make dentists that use fillings that expand with teeth
Thermostat When heated a bimetallic strip bends because one metal has expanded but the other metal hasn't. The bending of the strip triggers the system connected to the thermostat.
heat engine the device required to convert thermal energy to mechanical energy
combustion The process of burning a fuel such as coal or gasoline
External combustion engines fuel is burned outside engine. and ex is steam engine stem passes through valve pushes against piston in cylinder. used in locomotives and steamship
internal combustion engine fuel is burned inside engine ex diesel and gas engines in cars piston moves up and down turns crankshaft and transfers to wheels of car. most engines are four stroke engines.
refrigerator a device that uses an outside energy source to transfer thermal energy from a cool area to a warm area. requires a refrigerant substance.
the process refrigerant goes to gas state temp rises gas gives off thermal energy heat transfers to outside air gas goes to liquid liquid evaporates to cold gas gas absorbs heat from inside refrigerator and thermal energy goes back to compressor motor and start again
Created by: girlierox