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H&L2 test 4

Baroque 2nd half

QuestionAnswer
ritornello played by the orchestra
episode solo sections of ritornello form
bar form aab
example of bar form Durch Adams Fall by JS Bach
cantata form of Lutheran church music; combines poetic texts with texts drawn from chorales or the Bible including recitatives, airas, chorale settings, usually 1 or more choruses
example of cantata Nun Komm, der Heiden Heiland
ordres (suites) French for suites, based on dance forms; have delightful titles such as "La Voluptueuse"; intended for amateurs to play for their own entertainment
example of an ordre Vingt-Cinquieme Ordre by Couperin
fugue a contrapuntal composition in 2 or more voices built on a subject (short melody) that is stated in all voices and throughout the composition
example of a fugue Prelude and Fugue in A Minor by JS Bach
what date was Prelude and Fugue in A Minor c. 1715
who wrote Prelude and Fugue in A Minor JS Bach
Prelude and Fugue in A Minor virtuosic prelude; fugue; beings in the tonic; modulates through various keys; returns to tonic
ritornello form standard for fast movements; alternates episodes and ritornellos; small melodic units manipulated by the soloist or ritornellos; may present part of the original theme
example of ritornello form Concerto for Violin and Orchestra in A Minor
da capo aria return to the beginning and repeat with embellishments
example of da capo aria Bewundert, O Menschen by JS Bach
concerto grosso concerts for multiple soloists and orchestra
concertino soloists
ripieno orchestra
passion an oratorio performed during Holy Week (recounts the last suffering & death of Jesus Christ); 2 by Bach survive; has recitative, arias, choruses, chorales, and orchestral accompaniment
example of a passion St. John Passion and St. Matthew Passion by Bach
oratorio religious dramatic work of music; incorporates narrative, dialogue, & commentary; Latin, Italian, or English text; not staged, developed in Rome 17th Century; especially performed during Lent when opera was forbidden
example of an oratorio The Messiah by Handel
Mass Catholic service including kyrie, agnus dei, credo, sanctus, and gloria
Bach's only setting of the Mass Mass in B Minor; Bach's only complete setting of the Catholic Mass Ordinary; was a challenge for Bach: he had written all Mass parts before except the credo; not completely Catholic or Lutheran
sonata emerged as the principal form of chamber music (music meant to be performed in small intimate gatherings); expanded in size; Italians were the masters; became multi-movement works with contrasting movements
two types of sonatas chamber and church sonatas
example of a sonata Trio Sonata Op. 3 No. 2 by Corelli
Arcangelo Corelli (1653-1713) born into a well-to-do family in northeran Italy; studied violin & composition in Bologna; leading violinist & composer in Rome; also a violin teacher & orchestra director; founded a school for violin playing; wrote only for strings
example of a piece written by Corelli Trio Sonata Op. 3 No. 2
Sonata da camera chamber sonata; a series of stylized dances; often begins with a prelude
sonata da chiesa church sonata; contains abstract movements (only labeled with tempo markings); includes 1 or more 2 part dances; may be performed during the liturgy; 4 movements: slow-fast-slow-fast
example of a sonata da chiesa Trio Sonata Op. 3 No. 2
trio sonata most common instrumentation-4 players; 2 solo instruments (usually violins) with basso continuo
Corelli and trio sonatas melodies stress lyricism (less emphasis on virtuosity) often published in sets of 12; walking bass (steady often descending 8th notes); 2 violins-equal range & musical material; harmonic/Corelli suspensions: drive the harmonic momentum
example of a trio sonata Trio Sonata Op. 3 No. 2
chorale prelude played before each chorale, sometimes used to accompany congregational singing
example of a chorale prelude Durch Adams Fall by JS Bach
solo concerto concerto where a soloist is accompanied by an orchestra
example of a solo concerto Brandenburg Concertos (1712) by JS Bach
date Trio Sonata Op. 3 No. 2 was written 1680
Trio Sonata Op. 3 No. 2 was composed by Corelli
Trio Sonata Op. 3 No. 2 trio sonata; church sonata; 4 movements; Corelli suspensions; walking bass line; stress lyricism; stays in closely related keys (D Major and B Minor)
date Violin Concerto in A Minor, Op. 3, No. 6 was written c. 1710
Violin Concerto in A Minor, Op. 3, No. 6 was composed by Vivaldi
Violin Concerto in A Minor, Op. 3, No. 6 violin concerto; ritornello form; 3 movements: fast-slow-fast; episodes and ritornellos; solo violin; episodes: develop melodic ideas and present new figuration; melodies are long and expressive
date Durch Adams Fall was written c. 1716
Durch Adams Fall was composed by JS Bach
Durch Adams Fall chorale prelude; chorale tune in the top line- heard once with few embellishments; bar form; jagged descending leaps depict Adam's fall from grace; chromatic line-slithering serpent; downward sliding tenor-pull of temptation
date Water Music was written 1717
Water Music was composed by Handel
Water Music music to accompany King George I's lavish river excursions on the Thames; many barges of royals attended; 50 musicians performed; 1 hour of music; consists of 3 suites Suite I, II, & III; we listened to Suite II in D Major ("Horn pipe")
date Music for the Royal Fireworks was written by 1749
Music for the Royal Fireworks was composed by Handel
Music for the Royal Fireworks celebrate a treaty that ended the War of the Austrian Succession; 12,000 attended the concert; music to accompany grand fireworks; turned into a fiasco! (20% of the bombs & rockets ignited; launch caught fire)
date Vingt-Cinquieme Ordre (25th Order) was written c. 1730
Vingt-Cinquieme Ordre (25th Order) was composed by Couperin
Vingt-Cinquieme Ordre (25th Order) La Visionaire: like a French Opera overature, binary form (2 parts grave & viste), lots of ornaments; La Muse Victorieus: passepied, tempo-boldly and audaciously; balanced binary form-both sections end with the same melodic idea
passapied triple meter; a faster relative of the minuet
date Mass in B Minor was written 1747-1749
Mass in B Minor was composed by JS Bach
Mass in B Minor Bach's only complete setting of the Catholic Mass Ordinary; Bach had not written a Credo yet; not a conventional Catholic Mass; not completely Lutheran in theology; music adapted from earlier compositions; not performed completely during Bach's lifetime
first performance of the Mass in B Minor Felix Mendelssohn conducting; sparked the Bach revival
Dieterich Buxtehude (c. 1637-1707) renowned organist; composed organ (preludes & chorales) & sacred vocal music; powerful influence on JS Bach; son of German organist working in Denmark (trained w/ his father); played in German churches services but had to marry his predecessor's daughter
who held free, public concerts at St. Mary's that attracted musicians from all over Germany; hint: JS Bach walked more than 200 miles one way to hear him Dieterich Buxtehude (c. 1637-1707)
date Messiah was written 1742
Messiah was composed by Handel
Messiah "the oratorio of the ages"; composed in 24 days; premiered in Dublin; introduced to London in 2/23/1743 (King George II attended; "Halleluiah" Chorus tradition started); texts from King James version of Bible and Psalms from BCP; 3 parts
3 parts of the Messiah Isaiah's prophecy, Christ's passion and Judgement Day
date Nun Komm, der Heiden Heiland was written 1724
Nun Komm, der Heiden Heiland was composed by Bach
example of sacred contata Nun Komm, der Heiden Heiland
Nun Komm, der Heiden Heiland from 2nd cycle of contatas from Leipzig-1724, incorporates a chorale tune of the same name; for the 1st Sunday of Advent; opening chorus-simple 4 part arrangement; includes recitatives & arias in operetic style; ritornello from & da capo form in the arias
example of da capo aria Nun Komm, der Heiden Heiland
date Praeludium in E Major written late 17th Century
Praeludium in E Major was composed by Buxtehude
Praeludium in E Major organ prelude; music played before a Lutheran service; a challenging assignment for organ students; toccata in style; alternates free & imitative sections; different tempos, meter, melodies, etc; unified by E major; virtuoso writing for manuals & pedals
date St. Matthew Passion was written 1727
St. Matthew Passion was composed by Bach
St. Matthew Passion 1st performed on Good Friday; considered "the most heart-rending mourning for the dying Christ in our art"; no hint of the resurrection; no hope of rebirth; emotional acceptance of death; minimum 3 hrs long
St. Matthew Passion includes what in its instrumentation solo singers; 2 choirs; boys' choir; 2 orchestras; and two organs; in the excerpt we listened to there was a narrator (tenor) as the Evangelist; Jesus (bass); and 11 choir voices asking "Lord is it I?"
Jean-Philipp Telemann (1681-1767) self taught; studied law; organist & choirmaster in German churches; productive musically but troubled personally (1st wife died 2nd gambled & cheated); most prolific composer (over 3000 works); a leading German composer, infrequently performed today
who was one of the most prolific composers of all time Jean-Philipp Telemann (1681-1767)
who wrote Concerto in G for two violins Telemann
Francois Couperin (1668-1733) French; wrote ordres; wrote a treaties-L'art de toucher le clavecin (French baroque performance practice); composed church and chamber music; harpsichord teacher; best known for harpsichord music
George Frideric Handel (1685-1759) German; studied organ, harpsichord, & counterpoint; wrote operas; respected by Beethoven; moved to London & became a citizen; prospered in England; now rarely performed; wrote 29 Oratorios (very successful)
Created by: 530848841