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8th Grade Science

Mid Term Exam

TermDefinition
Constant variable that stays the same during an experiment
Control sample that is treated like other experimental groups except that the independent variable is not applied to it
Dependent Variable factor that is being measured during an experiment
Experimental Research Design used to answer scientific questions by testing a hypothesis through the use of a series of carefully controlled steps
Hypothesis prediction or statement that can be tested and may be formed by prior knowledge, any previous observations, and new information
Independent Variable variable that can be changed during an experiment
Model represents something that is too big, too small, too dangerous, too time consuming, or too expensive to observe directly
Science process used to investigate what is happening around us in order to solve problems or answer questions
Scientific Method ways to solve problems that can include step by step plans, making models, and carefully thought out experiments
Technology application of science to make useful products and tools, such as computers
Alpha Particle consists of a particle containing two protons and two neutrons
Atomic Number number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of a given element
Beta Particle a high-energy electron that comes from the nucleus
Electron negatively- charged particle that exists in an electron cloud formation around an atom's nucleus
Electron Cloud region surrounding the nucleus of an atom, where electrons are most likely to be found
Element substance that cannon be broken down into simpler substances
Half-Life time needed for one half of the mass of a sample of a radioactive isotope to decay
Isotope atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
Mass Number the sum of neutrons and protons in the nucleus of an atom
Neutron electrically neutral particle that has the same mass as a proton and is found in an atom's nucleus
Proton positively charged particle in the nucleus of an atom
Radioactive Decay release of nuclear particles and energy from unstable atomic nuclei
Transmutation the change of one element into another through radioactive decay
Actinides the second series of inner transition elements which goes from thorium to lawrencium
Alkali Metals elements in group 1 of the periodic table
Alkaline Earth Metals elements in group 2 of the periodic table
Catalyst substance that speeds up a chemical reaction but is not used up itself or permanently changed
Group family of elements in the periodic table that have similar physical or chemical properties
Halogens any element in group 17 of the periodic table
Lanthanides the first series of inner transition elements which goes from cerium to lutetium
Metal element that has luster, is malleable, ductile, and a good conductor of heat and electricity
Metalloid element that shares some properties with both metal and nonmetals
Nobel Gases elements in group 18 of the periodic table
Nonmetal element that is usually a gas or brittle solid at room temperature and is a poor conductor of heat and electricity
Period horizontal row of elements in the periodic table whose properties change gradually and predictably
Representative Element elements in groups 1 and 2 and 13-18 in the periodic table that include metals, metalloids, and nonmetals
Semiconductor element that does not conduct electricity as well as a metal but conducts it better than a nonmetal
Transition Elements elements in groups 3-12 in the periodic table, all of which are metals
Chemical Bond force that holds two atoms together
Chemical Formula combination of chemical symbols and numbers that indicates which elements and how many atoms of each element are present in a molecule
Compound pure substance that contains two or more elements
Covalent Bond chemical bond formed when atoms share electrons
Electron Cloud region surrounding the nucleus of an atom, where electrons are most likely to be found
Electron Dot Diagram chemical symbol for an element surrounded by as many dots as there are elements in its outer energy level
Energy Level the different positions for an electron in an atom
Ion atom that is positively or negatively charged because it has gained or lost one or more electrons
Ionic Bond attraction that holds oppositely charged ions close together
Metallic Bond bond formed when metal atoms share their pooled electrons
Molecule neutral particle formed when atoms share electrons
Polar Bond bond resulting from the unequal sharing of electrons
Activation Energy minimum amount of energy needed to start a chemical reaction
Catalyst substance that speeds up a chemical reaction but is not used up itself or permanently changed
Chemical Equation shorthand form for writing what reactants are used and what products are formed in a chemical reaction
Chemical Reaction process that produces chemical change, resulting in new substances that have properties different from those of the original substances
Concentration describes how much solute is present in a solution compared to the amount of solvent
Endothermic Reaction chemical reaction in which heat energy is absorbed
Enzyme a type of protein that regulates chemical reactions in cells without being changed or used up itself
Exothermic Reaction chemical reaction in which heat energy is released
Inhibitor substance that slows down a chemical reaction, making the formation of a certain amount of product take longer
Rate of Reaction measure of how fast a chemical reaction occurs
Acceleration equals the change in velocity divided by the time for the chance to take place, occurs when an object speeds up or slows down
Average Speed equals the total distance traveled divided by the total time taken to travel the distance
Inertia tendency of an object to resist a change in its motion
Instantaneous Speed the speed of an object at one instant of time
Law of Conservation of Momentum states that the total momentum of objects that collide with each other is the same before and after the collision
Mass amount of matter in an object
Momentum a measure of how difficult it is to stop a moving object; equals the product of mass and velocity
Speed equals the distance traveled divided by the time it takes to travel that distance
Velocity speed and direction of a moving object
Second SI unit of measurement for time
Meter SI unit of measurement for length
Kilogram SI unit of measurement for mass
Kelvin SI unit of measurement for temperature
Amperage SI unit of measurement for electrical current
Candle SI unit of measurement for luminous intensity
Mole SI unit of measurement for amount of a substance
Created by: wccarams