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# Hearing Science

### Practice for Flora Hearing Science Exam

Mass A property of all matter. The amount of matter an object has.
Gravity two objects attract one another; the large object attracts the smaller object. Strength and attraction depends on the masses of both the objects and the distance between them.
Displacement the difference between the path of the initial and final position covered by a moving object.
Velocity The rate of change in displacement. Movement from one point to another is time consuming process. Not the same as speed; velocity must be reported in magnitude and direction.
Density Amount of matter in a given unit of volume. Density of a matter can change in response to temperature or pressure changes. This is important in hearing science because the denser the object toe more sound is impeded.
Force Interaction between two objects or an object and its environment (push and pull).
Elasticity property of matter that allows it to return to its original shape after it is distorted. It could also be a force of motion after it is disturbed. Causes Vibration
Inertia the resistance of an physical object to a change in its state of motion or rest, or the tendency of an object to resist any change in its motion.
Potential energy stored energy in an object at rest
Kinetic energy energy of motion that an object has do to its velocity.
T or F: The back and forth motion or oscillation made by a pendulum is a sine function therefore the motion is sinusoidal. True
What is a periodic motion? A motion that repeats itself in regular intervals until it is stopped by an outside force.
How is a simple sinusoidal motions graphed? In a waveform. X-axis=time Y-axis= magnitude of a quantity.
One full repetition of a periodic motion is called a Cycle
A direct correlation of pitch, measured in Hertz (Hz). Frequency
The time it takes to complete a certain number of cycles. Period
How do you calculate frequency? number of cycles/ time
How do you calculate period? time/ number of cycles
Under the concept of phase, how is it defined? indicates a particular stage in the cycle of motion using the angles from a degree as the unit of measure.
What is a phase relationship? Describes the difference between the phase of two periodic waveforms as they cycle though time.
What are two examples of phase relationships? In phase and Out of phase
When two waveforms have the same frequency and the same phase is said to have what type of phase relationship? In phase
When two waveforms have the same frequency but the phase is not the same they are said to be what? Out of phase
what are the degrees of phase represented as? 0, 90, 180, 270, 360
true or false: A simple sinusoidal vibration is rarely present in nature. True
_____ is created from combining two or more sinusoidal vibrations. Complex vibration
How are complex vibrations categorized? As periodic and aperiodic.
A complex vibration that has a clear repeating pattern is said to be_____. Periodic
A complex vibration that has a random pattern or motion is said to be ______. Aperiodic
The process of combining several individual sinusoidal motions into a complex waveform is called Waveform synthesis
A break down of a wave form and looking at individual frequency components is called Waveform Analysis
What components does a waveform analysis show? Individual frequency components in a spectrum
the frequency domain refers to the analysis of mathematical functions or signals with respect to frequency, rather than time. x-axis= Frequency
What does sound need to be generated? 1. Vibrating object= Vocal folds 2. Elastic Medium = Air 3. Force = Air from the Lungs
What types of waves are generated and which one is directly related to sound? Longitudinal and Transverse waves
How is song propagated though space? A longitudinal wave
Two types of spaces in which sound may travel is Open Space and Closed Space
A free space from boundaries but not obstacles is called an Open Space
Inside with four walls is called what? Closed Spaces
What are they types of phenomena you will see once sound is produced? Absorption, Reflection, Refraction, Diffraction, Rarefaction.
Loss of energy due to friction encountered in the medium Absorption
Occurs when sound wave strikes the surface of a boundary and a small amount will be absorbed and the rest is put back into the environment. Reflection
The sound that travels though the new medium. As a sound wave travels though the boundary part of it will be absorbed, some will be reflected back and some will travel though the new medium. Refraction
A sound wave hits an obstacle that blocks the pathway of the traveling wave. Sound with either bend around it or be shadowed by it. Diffraction
T or F: Sound Absorption will increase with sound frequency. True, higher frequency sounds are more absorbed then lower frequency sounds.
T OR F: Sound is reflected at an angle. True, the angle of reflection depends on the direction of the sound and the shape of the boundary. Smooth = mirror image Rough= random.
The speed of sound traveling through the new medium will be affected by the stiffness and density characteristics of the new medium. Sound energy remains the same but speed changes. Speed changes then the wavelength changes lowering the frequency. True, Rules of sound refraction
When the reflected wave occurs in an closed space the phenomena of delayed reflection is called Reverberation
T or F: Reverberation is perceived as a prolonged sound True
The duration of time needed for sound pressure to decrease 1000% after the sound source ceseases vibration is called The reverberation time
Repetition of an original sound caused by longer time delays. Echo
Variations in sound pressure close to the sound source. The closer you are to the sound source the, sound pressure variations become more non uniform. Near Field
More uniform sound pressure. Further away from the sound source. Sound pressure is ore uniform but decreases the further away you get from the source. No Boundaries Far Field
Sound sorce in unbound space. Ex. Classroom with no obstacles. Space between speaker and the first row of desks Direct Sound Field
Mixture of the direct or original sound wave and the reflected sound wave because of the boundary. Occurs naturally in a closed space Indirect sound Field
How much greater one measurement is greater than the other. Subtraction record difference as a certain number. Absolute Difference
How many times greater one measurement is to another. A exportable amount not absolute Relative Difference
T OR F; A decibel is 1/2 a bel False 1/10th
Logarithmic Measure of the relationship between the amount of power in a signal to a reference point. Reported as dB IL Sound intensity
Sound pressure level the amount of pressure in a signal to the reference point . Reported as dB SPL
When sound pressure level is doubled it increases by 6dB SPL
When sound intensity level is doubled it increases by 3 dB- Il
Created by: bwhited3