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general anesthesia

pharm final

QuestionAnswer
define general anesthesia produces unconsciousness and without response to painful stimuli
define analgesia selectively reduces pain without loss of consciousness
3 effects of general anesthesia loss of pain/all sensations/ consciousness
define local anesthesia does not affect consciousness, only blunts sensation in a limited area
2 major routes of general anesthesia inhalation; IV
what do inhalation anesthetics produce unconsciousness, analgesia, muscle relaxation, and amnesia
mechanisms of aciton of inhalation anesthetics molecular lipid solubility; depression of transmission at inhibitory synapses
MAc minimum alveolar concentration
what is an index of inhalation anesthetic potency minimum alveolar concentration
what represents the minimum concenration of drug in alveolar air that will produce immobility when exposed to painful stimulus minimum alveolar concentration
Low minimum alveolar concentration indicates... high anesthetic potency
effect of uptake with greater concentration of inhalation anesthetic in the air more rapid uptake
What organs are affected first by inhalation anesthetics vital organs - heart, brain, kidney, liver
What organs are affected second by inhalation anesthetics skin and skeletal muscle
inhalation anesthetics are poorly perfused through what tissues fat, bone, ligaments, and cartilage
How are inhalation anesthtics eliminated almost exclusively by respiratory system; minimal if any liver metabolism
duration of inhalation anesthetics depends on rate of elimination
adverse effects of inhalation anesthetics respiratory/cardiac depression; sensitization of heart to catecholamines; malignant hyperthermia; aspiration; hepatotoxicity
goal of balanced anesthesia - combinations induction smooth and rapid; ensure that muscular relaxation is ideal; analgesia level idea
3 common balanced anesthesia combination types barbiturates; neuromuscular blocking; opioids and nitrous oxide
role of barbiturates in combination anesthesia effect during induction of the general anesthetic agent
role of neuromuscular blocking in combination anesthesia muscular relaxation
role of opioids and nitrous oxide in combination anesthesia analgesia
overall advantage of combination anesthesia use lower doses and safer
value of pre-anesthetic drugs amnesia; reduce anxiety; reduce pre and post op pain
pre-anesthetic drugs are used to... suppress salivation and bronchial secretions, cough
what side effects do pre-anesthetic drugs minimize bradycardia and vomiting
4 examples of pre-anesthetic drugs benzodiazepines; opioids; alpha-adrenergic agonists; anticholinergic drugs
role of short acting benzodiazepines reduce anxiety and promote anesthesia
role of opioids in preanesthetic drugs reduces pain; suppress cough; delays awakening; depresses CNS
opioids given as preanesthetic drugs morphine and fentanyl
2 alpha-adrenergic agonists used as preanesthetic drugs clonidine; dexmedetomidine (Precedex)
role of clonidine in preanesthetic drugs reduce hypertension; pain reduction; reduces anxiety; sedation
role of dexmedetomidine (Precedex) in preanesthetic drugs sedation and analgesia
anticholinergic drug given as preanesthetic drug atropine
role of anticholinergic drug in preanesthetic drugs reduces bronchial secretions; reduces risk of bradycardia; older agent; causes respiratory irritation
what kind of drug is succinylocholine neuromuscular blocking agent
action of succinylcholine prevents skeletal muscle, diaphragm; and other respiratory muscle contraction
adverse effects of succinylcholine produce state of total paralysis and patient can be fully awake
3 postanesthetic drugs categories analgesics; antiemetics; muscle agonists
role of muscle agonists as postanesthetic drug relieve abdominal distention and urinary retention
2 types of inhalation anesthetics volatile liquids; gases
potency of volatile liquid low minimal aveolar concentration = high potency
analgesic effect of volatile liquids weak and thus given with potent analgesics
muscle relaxation effect of volatile liquids weak
adverse effects of Halothane (Fluothane) hypotension, decreased CO, respiratory depression, dysrhythmias, malignant hyperthermia, hepatotoxicity; post op n/v
elimination of volatile liquids lungs
halothane (Fluothane) volatile liquid
major difference between halothane (Fluothane) and isoflurane (Forane) isoflurane does not cause myocardial depression
isoflurane (Forane) volatile liquid
nitrous oxide gas
potency of nitrous oxide low; high MAC
serious side effects of nitrous oxide none
ether (Ethylene) gas
Why was ether (Ethylene) replaced by better drugs explosive and no advantages over other medications
IV anesthetics used with inhalation drugs to: support decreased dose of the inhalant needed; get better anesthesia results
drug category give before the inhalation gas/liquid short acting barbiturates (Thiobarbiturates)
Why are short acting barbiturates used before inhalation gas/liquid acts rapidly; produces unconsciousness in 10-20 seconds; short acting = would awaken in 10 minutes if used alone
short acting barbiturates are weak... analgesia and muscle relaxant
adverse effects of short acting barbiturates cardiac and respiratory depression
benzodiazepines promote unconsciousness and amnesia
diazepam benzo
lorazepam benzo
midasolam benzo
How long for diazepam (Valium) to produce unconsciousness 1 minutes
benzo used for conscious sedation midazolam (Versed)
how should midazolam (versed)be injected slowly over 2 minutes to prevent CV and respiratory depression
propofol (diprivan) IV sedation/ hypnotic
What type of procedures is propofol used for non-invasive
onset and duration of porpofol (diprivan) 60 seconds and lasts for 3-5 minutes
actions of ketamine (ketalar) dissociative anesthesia; sedation; immobility; analgesia; amnesia
onset of ketamine (ketalar) rapid onset and lasts for 10-15 minutes
adverse effects of ketamine (ketalar) psychologic reactions
Created by: 1818554924