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ceie 450

final review

QuestionAnswer
CAFE stands for Corporate Average Fuel Economy T
Increasing the tar sand production would increase global warming emissions. T
The U.S. population as a whole is exposed to much lower levels of air pollution than 30 years ago? T
The first example of biological pest control in the US was the elimiation of the cottony cushion scale that was destroying California's citrus crop in the late nineteenth century. T
L.E.D. lighting has a lower operating cost than traditional Incandescent lightbulbs. T
A net effect of using antibiotics in chickens is a profit for poultry producers. F
Concrete is the most common material for noise barriers T
Opponents are concerned that GMO foods have contributed to recent increases in allergies. T
The number of species of fish in the Amazon exceeds the number found in the entire Atlantic Ocean. T
Significant features of Hampton Roads include an enormous military presence, several miles of beaches and waterfront property, an abundance of natural areas, a wealth of history, and the possession of three of the world’s ten bridge-tunnel networks. T
The Keystone pipeline has a current capacity of 60,000 barrels of oil a day. F
The most common nuclear fuels to use in nuclear reactors are Uranium-235 and Plutonium-239. T
The Obama Administration intends to raise the CAFE standards to 54.5 mpg by 2025. T
Constructing the pipeline would not impact wild life. F
The international image of America is a country that is constantly creating roadblocks in the way of reaching a global agreement on climate change and environmental protection. T
The emerald ash borer dies when trees are cut into small pieces to be used for firewood. F
L.E.D. lightbulbs have a longer lifespan than traditional Incandescent lightbulbs. T
The FDA has not banned any antibiotics in chickens thus far. F
An earthen berm is not an example of a noise barrier F
GMO foods can only be found in certain food products in today’s market. F
Deforesting the Amazon would cause climate changes in the United States. T
The flow of the Gulf Stream along the East Coast has started to slow down. T
The total capacity for all phases of the Keystone pipeline is 1.1 million barrels/day. T
The current solution in the US, regarding radioactive materials, is to store it in an underground geologic repository. T
The CAFE standards apply to the entire fleet of vehicles, not the individual car. T
The executive branch of the US government was the only branch to oversee the permitting of border crossing facilities for the KXL. F
The energy capacity of wind turbines is typically increased by raising their rotors further off the ground. T
Introducing a biological pest control agent, such as the Oobius wasp, is considered a certified organic practice. T
George Mason University has a goal to be climate neutral by 2050. T
If a human gets sick from the antibiotics in chickens, it is easy to counteract the sickness with other antibiotic formulas. F
Noise barriers block views and decrease light levels T
As of right now the law requires all GMO foods in the US to be properly labeled as containing GMO ingredients. F
Increased competition from imported goods does not pose a threat to domestic companies. F
Sea-level rise is the only issue affecting the water levels in the Hampton Roads region. F
Phase 4 of the XL Keystone Pipeline will approximately double the current capacity of the system. T
There have been fewer than 30 accidents in this country since the U.S. first started to use nuclear power plants in 1905. F
Current CAFE standards are around 27.5 mpg T
Some states wanted to change the path of the KXL. T
The cost to buy and install a commercial sized wind turbine is only down slightly compared to just a few years ago. F
The Purdue Calculator, deveolped at Purdue University, estimates the number of Ash Borer Beetles contained inside a single tree. F
L.E.D. lightbulbs are 90% efficient. T
The use of alternatives to antibiotics, such as probitotics, prebiotics, organic acids, and plant extracts can allow producers to classify livestock (chickens in this case) as "Organic". T
Average noise level drop by a noise barrier is approximately 7db T
Agricultural fields planted with GMOs have bred super weeds. T
The Amazon rainforest is too big; therefore we do not have to worry about deforestation. F
Mitigation actions alone can eliminate all climate-change impacts. F
Phase 4 of the Keystone piepline has already been approved and construction will begin in 2013. F
The practice of uranium mining is legal in the state of Virginia. F
Farm animals use the majority of the 110,000-220,000 tons of antibiotics manufactured each year. T
The Cap and Trade system would reduce the amount of nutrients in the Chesapeake Bay. T
The failure to remove reactor decay heat is what led to severe accidents at the Fukusima nuclear site in Japan. T
Paintable ceiling lights may soon be available that could replace conventional bulb-and-fixture lighting. T
The Amazon Rainforest spans 9 countries but approximately 60% of the forest is contained within Brazil. T
PVC is not a common material used in noise barriers, but it is 100% recyclable and contributes to an improved LEED rating. T
CO2 emissions have no effect on sea level rise. F
The loss of the Ash tree would impact building material, furniture, and sport equipment. T
The latest phase of the Obama Administration national vehicle program is to increase fuel economy to 54.5 miles per gallon for cars and light-duty trucks by Model Year 2025. T
The Food and Drug Adminstration's mission is to ensure the safety, sanitation, and proper labeling of food. T
Biomass is a renewable energy source that has reached its peak and does not have much of a future in today's world. F
Both point source pollution and non-point source pollution from factories or farms are easy to monitor and enforce. F
The National Residue Program (NRP) tests animal tissues and egg products to verify that antibiotic tolerances are not exceeded. T
The higher the salinity level in the bay, the more likely oysters are to succumb to waterborne pathogens. T
The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) was created as an independent agency by Congress in 1974 to ensure the safe use of radioactive materials for beneficial civilian purposes while protecting people and the environment. T
Based on various models developed by the EPA and other agencies, LED's are 2-3 times more damaging to potential resource depletion and metal toxicity than incandescent bulbs. T
Tariffs have a positive effect on both foreign and domestic economies. F
Egress for emergency or maintenance vehicles cannot be made along the 'transmitted path' on noise barrier walls. F
Deforestation is the highest source of CO2 emissions F
The Emerald Ash Borer destroys 100% of infected ash trees. F
The National Institutes of Health and the American Cancer Society have stated that there could be long-term health effects associated with living near electromagnetic fields caused by electric cars. T
By 1999, over 75% of corn, cotton, and soybeans in the U.S. were genetically modified. F
A major argument against wind energy is that wind can never be predicted. T
Water quality in the Chesapeake Bay can be entirely regulated and maintained by Virginia, without  collaboration with other states. F
The majority of antibiotics used in poultry production are not used in human medicine. T
The Cap and Trade system does not set a limit on how much manufacturing companies can pollute. F
One of the major arguments against nuclear energy is the volatility of the production costs for electricty once the nuclear power plants our operational. F
In comparison to fluorescent and incondescent lights, LED lights have the highest CRI (Color Rendering Index) value. F
The Brazilian government has strictly enforced regulations on logging in order to prevent further deforestation in the Amazon. F
Noise barriers may reduce pollution by more than 50%. T
Most sea level models predict sea level rise to be greater than 1 foot by 2050 T
There are no concerns that the oobius wasp could harm indigenous American insects. F
The retail price of an electric car is less than a gasoline car. F
Over 17 million hectares of GMO crops have been harvested with no side affects to human health. T
Tax credits are a way of making a good more economically feasible. T
In the past, some Cap and Trade systems have been manipulated by some companies wanting only to make a profit. T
The use of antibiotics is strictly regulated by FDA and the USDA to warrant their safety and efficacy. T
A Cap and Trade system on water pollution would improve farming methods and industry standards in Virginia. T
The proposed North Anna 3 reactor is just a myth and was not given an early site permit by the NRC. F
One of the major advantages of converting to LED lighting, for a large organization, is the low initial cost. F
Exports from the Amazon are few and would be easy to track and impose a tariff on. F
Noise pollution is a new concept. F
The Hampton Roads area is not affected by a storm surge. F
Oobius wasps have been proven to sting humans. F
Statistics show that between 2003 and 2008 blind pedestrians are regularly hit by hybrid and electric cars. F
Opponents of labeling genetically modified foods (GM foods) argue that no significant differences have been found between GM foods and conventional foods. T
The $10 per megawatt-hour wind tax credit applies to all wind turbines that produce energy. F
In a Cap and Trade system, “offsetting” allows companies to earn pollution credits by treating pollution already in the environment or by performing other environmentally friendly acts such as planting trees. T
Wool was Australia's main export from about 1820 to 1850. T
Colonists in Austrailia preferred to herd kangaroos rather than sheep because they were easier to handle and were in high demand worldwide. F
The U.S. remains Australian's largest source of imports and ( after Japan ) its secound largest export customer. T
The mining of many valuable materials, including coal and iron, are a key component to Australia's Economy. T
One of the economic consequences of low soil productivity in Austrailia involves agroforestry. T
Australia is one of the most productive continents: it has high nutrient levels, and high plant growth rates. F
In Australia the two of the major causes of land degradation are overstocking of sheep and clearance of native vegetation. T
Australian farmers are known for "flogging the land," or trying to extract more profit from the land than it can sustainably yield. T
Australia's soil is high in nutrients and low in salts. F
About 80% of Australia's agricultural profits come from less than 1% of its land. T
Frequent Volcanic activity in Australia is one reason their soil is so productive. F
Irrigation salinization occurs when farmers use salt water when irrigating their crops. F
The U.S. remains Austrilia's largest source of imports. T
Introduction of foxes help control the population of rabbits in Australia. F
Native rabbits in Australia have been raised for years for their fur and meat. F
Land degradation by overstocking of grazing sheep, poses a severe concern for Australian Ecosystems. T
Australia's rainfall is predictable; therefore, growing crops is inexpensive. F
Carbon dioxide emissions from agriculture in Australia are lower than those produced from motor vehicles. F
Due to Australia having the third largest exclusive marine zone in the world, they have one of the largest fisheries in the world. F
The Australian government still requires that tenants leasing government land to C135clear native vegetation, which contributes to land degradation. F
Ecologically, the Australian environment is exceptionally fragile, the most fragile of any First World country except perhaps Iceland. T
One of the simplest ways Australia can reduce its Greenhouse Gas Emissions is to get rid of its cattle production. T
Australia faces Tyranny of Distance both within the country, and for its distance from other countries. T
Wild rabbits, which overgraze the land, are native to Australia. F
The Clark Fork River, including the Berkeley Pit, is now the most expensive superfund clean up site in the U.S.. T
Montana's environmental problems translate into economic problems. T
Ponderosa trees have a low resistance to fire and should be cleared to reduce the spread of forrest fires. F
Currently, Montana's economy is primarily based on mining of copper and gold. F
The Bitterroot Valley is known as "Montana's Banana Belt" because of it's climate is conducive to their largest crop, the banana. F
The greatest cause of runoff in Montana is fertilizer and manure. F
Most Montana farmers plan to retire with the funds from selling their land to developers. T
Scientists estimate that by the year 2030 there will be five glaciers left in Glacier National Park. F
Montana's citizens are completely open to governmental oversight and intervention. F
Montana is now 45th out of 50 U.S. states in per-capita income. F
The old mines throughout Montana have caused many environmental problems including contaminated ground water with arsenic and other lethal chemicals. T
The federal government’s fire suppression policy in Montana led to a dramatic decrease in the number of annual forest fires. F
The first recorded Europeans to visit Montana were part of a the transcontental Lewis and Clark Expedition of 1804-1806. T
Montana's is agriculturaly competetive. F
Montana is not proportional in size and population.C152 T
The Bitterroot River became famous when extraordinarily high rates of cancer were linked to the production of rootbeer made from sasafrass which grows prolifically along its banks. F
Forest fires are on the rise in Montana due to climate change and human activities. T
Montana's low rates of plant growth corresponds to their low seasonal rainfall. T
The US Forest Service policy of fire suppression that was introduced in the first decade of the 1900's has been successful. F
Residues from metal mining are large contributors to Montana's toxic waste problem. T
Even small farms are successful in Montana. F
Commercial logging began in the Bitterroot Valley in the 1880s. T
The increase in "newcomers" in Montana is a good thing for the environment because they also bring money to correct the problems. F
Montana is poorly suited for farming because of its short growing season and low rainfall amounts. T
New Guinea used "bottom-up" problem solving to deal with issues that arose. T
Japan imports forestry resources from other countries to protect their own. T
Around 46,000 years ago New Guinea and Australia were joined together as one single landmass. T
New Guineans developed a sustainable agriculture only after the European settlers taught them proper European practices, such as using horizontal drainage ditches along the mountainside as apposed to the existing ditches that ran vertically down the mount F
The Casuarina oligodon is a species native to the New Guinea highlands that grow on a massive scale by transplanting seedlings that have sprouted naturally along stream banks T
New Guinea highland casuarina silviculture (growth of field trees instead of field crops as conventional agriculture) is an example of bottom-up problem solving. T
One of the reasons Japan succeeded after deforestation is their environmental advantages of living in an area of high rain fall, and high fallout of volcanic ash and Asian dust. T
Europeans successfully taught New Guineans that drainage should be oriented horizontally on a steep slope in a wet area to grow sweet potatoes. F
One of Tikopia's methods of population regulation was contraception by coitus interruptus. T
The first American visitors to Japan introduced Christianity. Later, Toyotomi Hideyoshi complimented Japan's first group of 26 Christian martyrs. F
Because of Tikopia's small size of 1.8 square miles it was not able to sustain a food source, therefore driving the population to extinction. F
New Guineans practiced food crop rotation with legumes that maintained nitrogen levels in soils. T
Tikopia's chiefs produce their own food and dig their own gardens. T
New Guineans used infanticide as an option to control their population T
Until the late 19th century, most Japanese buildings were made of wood. T
An outside observer who could have visited Japan in 1650 might have predicted that Japanese society was on the verge of social collapse, which was triggered by catastrophic deforestation. T
Tikopia was an unsuccessful story of bottom-up management F
Japan did not start techniques of forest management until the 1500s; the Germans developed it. F
Tokugawa Japan failed to avert deforestation. F
Past societies suffered from "landscape amnesia": forgetting how different the surrounding landscape looked 50 years ago, because the change from year to year has been so gradual. T
Due to Tokugawa Japan's isolated location, the Japanese had to depend on another country's resources. F
The bottom-up appoach to environmental issues is most commonly used for societies with small land area. T
The people of Tikopia would traditionally practice methods of population control such as contraception, abortion, and infanticide to keep the island’s population at sustainable levels. T
Eric the Red was Greenland's Viking settlement founder. T
The Viking's auto-catalytic expansion began in 793 A.D.C187 with the attack of an English monastary. T
The Greenland Norse had to develop a complex, integrated economy in order to make ends meet. T
Modern Greenland is economically self-sufficient and does not depend on Denmark for monetary aide. F
The original settlers to Greenland did not leave extensive information on the climate at the time so their most detailed past climate information comes from analyzing ice cores. T
For Greenland's and Iceland's history, we have contemporary written accounts from these societies and their trade partners. T
Vikings brought practices from their native land to their new home land which had negative effects because the new environment was not the same as their native environment. T
Livestock for Vikings was a primary source of food due to the cool climate. T
Norse Greenland is one of the few societies that still exists today. F
The Vikings established five major colonies on North Atlantic islands, including ones on Iceland and Greenland. F
We can reconstruct past Greenland climates from Icelandic records, pollen, and ice cores. T
Vikings in Greenland used large numbers of trees to make charcoal so that they could forge iron weapons and tools. T
Greenlanders maintained thier European identity. T
Despite realizing that Iceland's environment was more sensitive than their homelands, the settlers on the island continued to adopt risky agricultural practices. F
Viking Greenland was a conservative society resistant to change and sticking to old ways, compared to the society of the Vikings who remained behind in Norway. T
The Greenland Norse did not think of themselves as Europeans and made great efforts to adapt themselves and their culture to their new environment. F
The Norse established a good trade relationship with the Inuit based on peace and friendship. F
Consolidation of royal power, population growth, uninhabited new lands, and defenseless rich lands were among the reasons the Vikings explored other lands. T
In the Norse Greenland colonies, cows outnumbered sheep and goats. F
Iceland's soil consists of an ash layer that can be easily eroded by winds if it is exposed by removing vegetation. T
Tokugawa shoguns, Inca emperors, New Guinea highlanders and 16th century German landowners adopted a long view and reafforested. T
The Norse lived in two settlements on Greenland's west coast, and they shared the island with the Inuit. Due to the harsh climate, both the Norse and the Inuit eventually died out. F
Due to wide up-and-down fluctuations, the creeping normalcy of global warming has only recently been noticed as a 0.01 degree/year rise in temperature T
Fish was such a staple food to the Greenland Norse that they constantly over-harvested the local fish population. F
Created by: toad118