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NRSG 111 FINAL

OMG. 80/20

QuestionAnswer
How are STIs transmitted? sexual contact, mother to infant in pregnancy and childbirth, sharing of needles or tissue transfers
What is asymptomatic? no signs of symptoms
What percentage of untreated chlamydia leads to pelvic inflammatory disease? 10% to 40%
What can gnorrhea cause? spontaneous abortions and premat delivery
What is the chance of blindness in babies born to women with chlamydia and gonorrhoea? 30%
What is a sign? when the health care provider sees on examination
What is a symptom? what the patient feels, ex. pain, irritation
What are syndromes? different pathogens can cause STIs but some give rise to overlapping clinical appearances
What are common signs and symptoms? urethral discharge, genital ulcers, scrotal swelling, inguinal swelling, vaginal discharge, lower ab pain, neonatal eye functions
What might STIs lead to? stertility & infertility, PID, AIDs, Blindness, chronic pelvic pain, cervical cancer, CNS destruction, Ectopic pregnancy, facial disfigurement, death
What are some asymptotic STIs chlamydia, HIV, gnorrhea, syphilis, genital herpes, HPV
How can you prevent STIs? abstain from sex, have intercourse with longterm & mutually monogamous relationship, and condoms
What are methods of testing? swab from urethra, cervix, vagina or anus; urine test; blood test; dan test; syndrom approach; tissue scraping
What is the syndrome approach? looks at signs and symptoms
What are three different types of STIs? bacteria (can be treated and cured), virus (can be treated) and parasites (can be treate and cured)
What are some common bacterial STIs? chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis
What is the most common bacterial STI since 1990? Chlamydia
Is chlamydia asymptomatic? Yes, symptoms may occur 2 to 6 weeks after exposure?
What are the female signs and symptoms of chlamydia? vaginal discharge, painful urination, lower ab pain, vaginal bleeding after intercourse and painful discharge during intercourse
What are the male signs and symptoms of chlamydia? clear, watery or milky urethral discharge, itchy urethra, testicular pain, and painful urination
What is the treatment for chlamydia? antibiotics (single dose or course of a week; if PID or cimplicated infections then long course of texture; hospitalization in some cases
What is the second most common bacterial STI reported in Canada since 1924? Gonorrhea
Is gonorrhea asymptomatic? sort of, women are most often asymptomatic
What are the female signs and symptoms of gonorrhoea? increase of vaginal discharge; lower ab pain; painful urination; pain during intercourse; rectal pain, discharge, or itching; vaginal bleeding after intercourse
What are the male signs and symptoms of gonorrhoea? thick, yellowish, green discharge; painful urination; testicular pain or swelling; rectal pain, discharge, or itching.
What is the treatment of gonorrhoea? antibiotics
What are the signs and symptoms of primary syphilis? three days to three months after exposure a small painless lesion or sore called a chancre is developed.
Where does a chancre appear? where bacteria entered body. It heals on its own but infection remains.
If a chancre heals on its own, what does that mean? it means that the syphilis is entering the CNS
What are the signs and symptoms of secondary syphilis? 2 to 24 weeks after exposure; feeling unwell; rash on body (usually hands and soles of feet); patchy hair loss; flat, smooth warts in genital area
What are the signs and symptoms of tertiary syphilis? 1 to 10 years after primary contact may find tumor-like balls of inflammation (can appear anywhere on the body, can result in gross malformation on local anatomy)
What is the treatment of syphilis? indictable penicillin, tertiary --> antibiotics can stop progression but not rid damage already done
What are some viral STIs? genital herpes, Hep B, HIV, HPV
When do people develop symptoms of genital herpes? not all develop symptoms, but can emerge 2 to 21 days after
What might occur prior to a genital herpes outbreak? may feel tingling or burning sensations
What might happen during a genital herpes outbreak? painful sores, muscular pain, inflammation and redness, tender lymph nodes and fever
What are possible complications that come with genital herpes? blister recurrences; cervical vulvar, vaginal anal, penile and other; obstruction of urethra vaginal opening; depression, sexual dysfunction
What is a treatment for genital herpes? antiviral medications --> acyclovier, famciclovir, valacyvlovir ---> ASAP
What are the signs and symptoms for Hep B? up to 50% are asymptomatic, up to 8 weeks people experience flu like symptoms: tiredness, nausea & vomiting, decreased appetite, yellowing of eyes and skin, rash, joint pain, liver damage
What is the treatment for Hep B? most recover fully withing six months with lifelong immunity, OR antiviral medications or interferon can decrease or remove chronic Hep B from blood and reduce risk of cirrhosis and liver cancer OR liver transplant
When do signs and symptoms usually appear for HIV? two to four weeks after exposure may have mild flu-like symptoms but usually don't emerge until years after exposure
What are the signs and symptoms of HIV? frequent fever/sweats, persistent skin rashes, joint or muscle pain, swollen glands, sore throat, fatigue/lack of energy, headaches, unexplained weight loss, nausea, vomitting, dark uring, pal stools, diarrhea
How can you detect HIV? ONLY by blood tests
How does HIV enter your system? blood, semen, vaginal discharge, breastmilk
How does HIV work? it attacks the immune system at a low level and works up
What are the treatments to HIV? no cure, anti-retroviral thearpy --> slows progression and helps immune system restore itself --> several side effects
What are you at risk for after aids has set in? infections, loss of vision, candidacies (yeast infection in esophagus, lungs, bronchial, vaginal), cancers (cervical, anal, lymphoma, kaposi sarcoma), increased frequency and severoty of herpes outbreaks, chronic intestinal disturbances
Is there a cure for HPV? A vaccination? No cure, but there is a vaccination
What are the signs and symptoms of HPV? many do not have symptoms but can develop: ano-genital warts (on vulva, cervix, penis, scrotum, anus, urethra), itchiness, discomfort and bleeding during intercourse
Describe ano-genital warts small, soft, flesh-coloured growths that are cauliflower like
What treatment is used on HPV? genital warts can be treated (depending on size, #, location) --> strong acids & chemicals, topical cream, liquid nitrogen, elastic currents or laser therapy
What are different parasites and fungal STIs? candidiasis, pubic live, scabies, trichomaniasis
What can candiadiasis cause? vulvovagninites
What can candiadiasis affect? mouth, esophagus or skin
What are causes of fungal overgrowth? pregnancy, medications, weakened immune system, sexual activities, poor controlled diabetes, genital moisture
What are the signs and symptoms of candiadiasis in a female? vaginal itchiness; thick white, clumpy, discharge; pain with intercourse and irratation of vulva; swollen or red vulva and vagina; burning during urination
What are the signs symptoms of candiadiasis in male? men are asymptomatic, men with infection of penis may develop inflammation of head and may experience: itching, red dots, dry peeling skin, burning on urination
What is pubic lice? crab-like insects that nest in pubic hair. bite and feed on blood of host and lay small eggs (nits) that attach to shaft hair
What are the signs and symptoms of pubic lice? skin irritation & inflammation, itchiness & redness; small blue spots where bitten, louse feces undergarments
What are some considerations of public lice? persistent scratching --> secondary bacterial infection; partners from a month prior should be treated; wash things and bag for a week
What are some treatments of pubic lice? affected area washed & use lice-killing product; wash, vacuum & clean
What are scabies? parasitic mites --> burrow under surface of skin and hatch eggs, larvae move to new areas and spread infection. They like warm zones
What are the signs and symptoms of scabies? intense itchiness, reddish rash
How is scabies transmitted? through close contact, can live for 3 days on towels, clothes and bedding
What is the treatment of scabies? creams & lotions; clothes and beddings washed, household contacts and sexual partners within a month prior should be treated
What are signs and symptoms of trichomoniasis in women? half of infected women show signs and symptoms, off white-yellowish green frothy vaginal discharge, sore or itchy vagina, pain during intercourse or urination
What are signs and symptoms of trichomoniasis in male? asymptomatic in men, irritation or redness at urethral opening, burning during urination or ejaculation
What is the treatment for trichomoniasis? medication, usually metroidazole, sexual partners should be treated
What does family planning allow individuals to do? allows individuals and couples to anticipate and attain their desired number of children and the spacing and timing
What are three ways family planning is done? natural family planning methods, contraceptives, treatment of fertility
What are the four natural family planning methods? symptoms, calendar, withdrawal, breastfeeding
How does the symptoms/basal body temp method work? Woman's BT is lowest after waking up each morning, take temp daily and chart
What must you keep in mind if you are following the basal body temperature method? BBT drops slightly before ovulation and rises 24-72 hours after ovulation --> refrain from intercourse from beginning of menstrual cycle after BBT has remained elevated for 3 consecutive days
What must you keep in mind for the cervical mucous/billings method? mucus during ovulation is clear, thin,and slippery
What might make charting difficult for the cervical/mucous/billings method? douching, semen, spermicides, some medications, vaginal infections, and vaginal lubricants
What is Coitus interrupts? withdrawal method
What is the failure rate of the withdrawal method? 4-27%
What is another name for the calendar method? rhythm method
How does the calendar method work? Woman keeps track of her cycle for one year. The length of the shortest cycle minus 19 days is the latest day after onset of menstrual period that woman is likely fertile.
Is the calendar method accurate? No, high failure rate
What is the Amenorrhea method? breast feeding method
What does the breastfeeding method say? it says that breastfeeding can surpass a woman's fertility in the EARLY MONTHS after delivery
When can the breastfeeding method be used? can be used if the menstrual period has not returned since delievery, baby is breastfed on demand (day and night) and no other foods or liquids are given to the baby regularly and baby is less than 6 months
Does the breastfeeding method work? It has a high failure rate
What are the benefits of NFP? accepted by some religions, woman in tune with the body, instantly reversible, can help conceive when ready, supplies inexpensive
What are some contraindictions of NFP? unwillingness to abstain, irreg menstrual cycle, temp patterns and vaginal discharge, can't keep perfect records
Side effects of NFP? abstinence must be practiced, high failure rates, no protection against STIs
What are the different contraception methods? condoms, transdermal patch, oral, vaginal rings, injectable, IUS, IUD, diaphragms & cervical caps, sponge & spermicide, sterilization
What is the difference between Latex/non-latex & polyurethane condoms? polyurethane condoms breaks easier
Do male condoms prevent against herpes and HPV? not fully
Are male condoms Latex/non-latex or polyurethane? What about female condoms? ALL, only polyurethane
What is special about the female condom? It has two rings, an inner one at the closed end and an outer ring that remains inside the vagina
Can a female and male condom be used together? NO. More prone to breakage
What are oral contraceptives? prescription tablets that are taken once a day
What are the different types of oral contraceptives? combination pill & progesterone only pill
What is the combination pill? contains both estrogen and progesterone
How do oral contraceptives work? they stop the release of a mature egg, thicken cervical mucus making it difficult for sperm to get to the egg & change lining of the uterus so implantation is difficult
What is the failure rate of oral contraceptives? 80 per 1000
What are the advantages for oral contraceptives reversible, simple & easy, regulates menstrual cycle, reduces cramps, does not interfere with intercourse, decreases acne, reduces risk of endometrial & ovarian cancer
What are disadvantages of oral contraceptives? daily (P-only must be taken daily at the, same time), irreg bleed or spotting, effectiveness can be reduced by other meds, cannot be used by +35 women who smoke, may increase blood clots, no STI protection, may increase headaches, breastfeeding is no
What does a transdermal patch do? releases hormones through skin
Where can a transdermal patch be placed? bum, upper outer arm, lower abs, upper torso (excl. breast)
How do you use a transdermal patch? new patch once a week for three weeks, followed by one week w/o patch
What does a transdermal patch do? stop the release of a mature egg, thicken cervical mucus making it difficult for sperm to get to the egg & change lining of the uterus so implantation is difficult
What is the failure rate of oral contraceptives? 80 per 1000
What are the advantages for transdermal patches? reversible, highly effective, once-a-wekk, simple & easy, regulates mentrual cycle, reduces cramps, does not interfere with intercourse, expected to provide benefits similar to oral contraceptive
Disadvantages of transdermal patch? irregular bleeding or spotting, breast sensitivity, headache, no STI protection, may detach (less than 2%), skin irritation
What is a vaginal ring? a flexible, nearly transparent ring that measures 54 mm (2 inches) across, it releases a continuous dose of hormones for 3 weeks
How does the vaginal ring work? stop the release of a mature egg, thicken cervical mucus making it difficult for sperm to get to the egg & change lining of the uterus so implantation is difficult
What is the failure rate of the vaginal ring? 80 per 1000
What are the advantages of the vaginal ring? reversible, highly effective, once a month, regulates menstrual, does not interfere with intercourse, expected to provide benefits
What are the disadvantages of the vaginal ring? does not protect against STIS, Irreg bleeding/spotting, headache, nausea, breast tenderness, ring might come out, vaginal discomfort
What is the injectable contraceptive an injection in the upper arm or bum every 12 to 13 weeks with progesterone
How does the injectable contraceptive work? stop the release of a mature egg, thicken cervical mucus making it difficult for sperm to get to the egg & change lining of the uterus so implantation is difficult
What is the failure rate of the injectable contraceptive? 30 per 1000
What are the advantages of the injectable contraceptive? reversible, no estrogen, effectiveness not reduced by meds, breastfeeding/smoking ok, menstrual cycle cease after 2 years, improves endometriosis, quick (5 days), reduce risk of endometrial cancer
What are the disadvantages of the injectable contraceptive? initial ireg bleeding, weight gain, decrease in bone mineral density, 9 months after ovaries release again, no STI protection, lack of period might be bothersome
What is the Intrauterine System (IUS) T shaped device with levonorgestrel, hormone released slowly and acts on uterus lining, inserted by physician
How does the IUS work? it goes into the cervix and has hormones inside it
What is the failure rate of the IUS? 1 per 1000
What are the advantages of the IUS? 5 years, not daily, no estrogen, doesn't interference w/ intercourse, regulates menstrual cycle & reduces cramps, may reduce endometriosis pain, may lower risk of development of precancerous cells in uterus lining, might stop menstrual cycle
What are disadvantages of the IUS? irreg bleeding or spotting, may be expelled (6%), perforation during insertion, no STIs protection, physician must insert and remove
What is the Intrauterine Device (IUD)? T-shape device with a copper wire around it, no medication, inserted by a physician
How does the IUD work? causes changes in the lining of the uterus, prevents sperm from fertilizing egg, decreases activity of sperm to penetrate the cervical mucus
What is the failure rate of the IUD? 8 per 1000
What are the advantages of the IUD? 5 years, no medication, may reduce endomitral cancer, doesn't interfere with intercourse, may be suitable for breastfeeding
What are the disadvantages of the IUD? irreg bleeding ot spotting, perforation of uterus, may increase menstrual bleeding or cramping, may be expelled 2-10%, no STI protection
What are diaphragms and cervical caps? intravaginal barriers that are used with spermicide
What is the diaphragm? a latex dome with flexible steel ring around the edge
What is the cervical cap? a thimble shaped silicone cap
How long is the diaphragm or cervical cap left in for? 6-8 hours after intercourse
How do the diaphragm and cervical cap work? when positioned properly, it blocks entry to uterus so sperm cannot enter and fertilize the egg
When using the diaphragm and cervical cap, what should be done in terms of spermicides? it should be reapplied for each intercourse
What is the failure rate of the diaphragm and cervical cap? 100-320 per 1000
What are the advantages of the diaphragm and cervical cap? no hormones, inexpensive/reusable, can be used by breastfeeding women
What are disadvantages of the diaphragm and cervical cap? need at time of intercourse, proper insertion technique, no STI protection, spermicides = allergic reaction, diaphragm might increase chance of UTI, may become dislodged, cervical cap can't be used during menstruation & may cause vaginal odour/discharge
What is a spermicide? things that disable sperm and come in several forms, creams, jellies, tablets, suppositories, foams, film
What is a sponge? soft disposable, polyurethane foam device that is impregnated with spermicide
How does the sponge work? fits over cervix, traps & absorbs sperm to augment effect of spermicide, spermicide in sponge disables sperms, effective for up to 12 hours
What is the failure rate of sponge and spermicide? 160-320 per 1000
Advantages of the sponge and spermicide? no hormones, breastfeeding is okay, smoking is okay, spermicide is added lube
Disadvantages of the sponge and spermicide? need at time of intercourse, no STI protection, spermicide allergies, proper insertion technique, spermicide must be inserted in advance, sponge = vaginal irritation or infection, left long = toxic syndrome shock
What are different types of female sterilization? laparoscopy, mini-laparotomy, hysteroscopy, blocking of the fallopian tube
What is laparoscopy? special instruments inserted through two tiny incisions in abdomen
What is mini-laparotomy? small cut in the abdomen
What is hysteroscopy? use of thin telescope inserted into uterus
What are ways the fallopian tube can be blocked? clip, ring, removing a piece, cautery (electric current), hysteroscopy for insertion of tubal plugs
How does female sterilization work? blocks fallopian tube so sperm & egg cannot meet
What is the failure rate of female sterilization? 5 per 1000
What are the advantages of female sterilization? no routine, no interference w/ intercourse, private, no significant long term side effects
What are the disadvantages of female sterilization? usually permanent, regret, pregnancy = ectopic pregnancy, no STI protection, short term surgery complications,
What is male sterilization? surgical procedure to close or block the vas deferens --> sperm can't escape
What are two common techniques of male sterilization? conventional vasectomy, no-scalpel vasectomy
What is conventional vasectomy? one or two incisions in the scrotom to reach the vas deferens
What is no-scalpel vasectomy? puncture opening in scrotum --> closed by electric current, mechanical method, removal of small segment of tube
What is the failure rate of male sterilization? 1.5 per 1000
What are the advantages of male sterilization? no routine, private, no intercourse interference, simple procedure, no sig. longterm effects, less invasive, more cost-effective, males are given responsibility
What are the disadvantages of male sterilization? difficult to revers, regret, short term complications, no STI protection, not effective immediately
What are emergency contraceptives? back up that can be used w/in 5 days --> morning after, plan b, norlevo
What do emergency contraceptives do? prevent ovulation, thickens cervical mucus, thins uterine wall
What are side effects of emergency contraceptives? breast tenderness, irreg bleeding, dizziness, headaches
How effective is it? 60-90% effective
Why is understanding normal growth and development important? it provides a framework for age specific health assessment and promotion throughout a person's lifespan
What is development? increase in complexity of function and skill progression, capacity and skill to adapt to environment
What factors might influence growth and development? genetic, temperament, family, nutrition, environment, health, culture
What is are the 8 major components of growth and development? biophysical, psychosocial, cognitive, behavioural, social, ecological, moral, spiritual
What are the 11 stages of growth and development? neonatal, infancy, toddlerhood, preschool, school age, adolescence, young adulthood, middle adulthoor, young-old, middle-old, old-old
What is the biophysical theory? development and physical changes of the body compared against established norms
Give an biophysical theorist Arnold Gesell (1880 -1961)
What is arnold Gesell's theory directed by? genetics, maturational process based on inborn timetable
What are psychosocial theories? development of personality
Who are some psychosocial theorists? Robert Havighurst (1990-1991), Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), Erik Erikson (1902-1994), Robert Peck (1919-2002), Roger Gould (B. 1935)
Explain Robert Havighurt's theory learning is basic & continuous, occurs in 6 stages, faced with a development task at each stage
Explain Sigmund Frued's theory introduced concepts of the unconscious mind, defence mechanisms & id, ego and super-ego
What is the unconscious mind? What are defense mechanisms? mental life (unaware of it); result of conflict because of environmental/social restrictions
What is id? source of intrinsic & unconscious urges (source of all pleasure)
What is ego? (Freud) formed by person to make effective contact with social and physical needs --> satisfies id impulses
What is super-ego? (Freud) conscience (do nots) and ego ideal (standards of perfection)
What is libido? (Freud) motivation to human development
How many stages are in Sigmund Freud's theory? 5: oral, anal, phalic, latency, genital
What is Erik Erikson's theory? an expansion of Frued's theory that includes all lifespan
What is ego (Erikson)? conscious core of personality
How many stages are in erikson's theory? 8: infancy, early childhood, late childhood, school age, adolescence, young adulthood, adulthood, maturity
What is infancy in Erikson's theory? trust vs mistrust
What is early childhood in Erikson's theory? autonomy vs. shame & doubt
What is late childhood in Erikson's theory? initiative vs. guilt
What is school age in Erikson's theory? industry vs. inferiority
What is adolescence in Erikson's theory? identity vs. role confusion
What is young adulthood in Erikson's theory? intimacy vs. isolation
What is adulthood in Erikson's theory? generatively vs. stagnation
What is maturity in Erikson's theory? integrity vs. despair
What is Robert Peck's theory? physical capabilities decrease but mental & social capacities increase with age
According to Robert Peck, what are the three developmental tasks in old age? ego differentiation vs. work-role preoccupation, body transcendence vs. body preoccupation, ego transcendence vs. ego preoccupation
What is Robert Gould's theory? transformation is central during adulthood
What are the seven stages of Gould's theory? 16/18 part of family, wants freedom; 18/22 autonomy in jeopardy; 22/28 autonomy established must prove self; 28/34 marriage & career, questions life; 34/43 self reflection, questions values & life; 43 to 50 personality set, time finite; 50 to 60 mortality
What is temperament? response to environment
Who are the temperament theorists? Stella Chess (1914-2007) and Alexander Thomas (1914-2003)
What do Stella Chess and Alexander Thomas say about temperament? goodness of fit btwn temperamental qualities and demands of environment contributes to positive interaction and growth/development
What is goodness of fit? parent's expectation of childs behaviour consistent with temperament of the child
How many characteristics are there in temperament? What are they? 9: activity, sensitivity, intensitiy, adaptability, distractability, approach/withdrawal, mood, persistence, regularity
Who is the attachment theorist? John Bowlby (1907- 1990)
What is John Bowlby's theory? early childhood experience has strong influence on child's development & later behaviour, humans have essential need for attachment
Who is the Cognitive theorist? Jean Piaget (1896-1980)
What is cognitive development? orderly, sequential process
What are the five major phases of cognitive development (piaget) sensorimotor, preconceptual, intuitive thought phase, concrete operations, formal operations
What is the sensorimotor phase? actions reflexive, object extension of self, acknowledges external environment, goal and attainment, new goals, pretend play
What is the preconceptual phase? egocentric approach, words with objects
What is the intuitive thought phase? one idea at a time, words express thought
What is the concrete operations phase? solves concrete problems
What is the formal operations phase? rational thinking
What three primary abilities are used in each stage? assimilation accomodation, adaption
What is assimilation? process of humans encounter & react to new situations by mechanisms already processed
What is accommodation? process of change
What is adaption coping behaviour
What is the social learning theory? based on the principle that individuals learn by observing and thinking about behaviour of self and others and seen as spanning both behaviourist and cognitive learning theories
Who are the social learning theorists? albert bandura (b.1925) and Lev Vygotsky (1896 - 1934)
What is Albert Bandura's social learning theory? learn by imitation and practice -> requires self awareness, self motivation and self regulation, individual actively interacts with environment to learn
What is Lev Vygotsky's social learning theory? cognitive development within social, historical and cultural contexts --> adults guide children to learn & development depends on use of language, play and extensive social interaction
Who is the ecological systems theorist? Urie Bronfenbrenner
What is the ecological systems theory? child interacts with environment at different levels and systems
How many levels are there in the ecological systems theory? 5: microsystem (close daily relationships), Mesosystem (relationships of microsystems), Exosystem (settings that might influence a child but no daily contact), Macrosystem (attitudes/beliefs of culture), chronosystem (period child grows up in)
Who are the two Moral Development theorists? Lawrence Kholberg (1927-1987) and Carol Gilligan (B.1936)
What does Lawrence Kohlberg focus on? why an individual makes a decision
What is the first level of Kohlberg's moral development theory? Premoral/Preconventional --> responsive to cultural rules & label of good/bad, physical terms (punishment vs. reward); STAGES: Punishment & Obedient, Instrumental relativist (egocentric)
What is the second level of Kohlberg's moral development theory? Conventional: maintain expectations of fam, group, nation --> loyalty/conformity; STAGES: Interpersonal concordance orientation (approval, concerns of others), Law & Order
What is the third level of Kohlberg's moral development theory? Postconventional/Autonomous/Principled -->define valid values w/o regard to outside authority/expectations; STAGES: social contract legalistic orientation (social rules are not sole basis), universal ethical principle orientation (internalized rules)
What is Carol Gilligan's Moral development theory? moral development must include caring and responsibility
What are the three stages of Gilligan's moral development theory? Caring for self (survival,selfish); Caring for others (approach causes difficulties with relationships b/c lacks balance); Caring for self & others (self needs not met, others might suffer)
Who are the Spiritual Development theorists? James Fowler (B. 1940) and John Westerhoff (B. 1933)
What is James Fowler's take on faith? a force that gives meaning to life --> form of knowing, way of being in relation to an ultimate environment, Development of faith = interactive process between persona and environment
What is John Westerhoff's take on faith? a way of being and behaving that evolves from experienced faith guided by parents & others during infancy & childhood to an own faith
What is self concept? mental image of oneself
What are the four dimensions of self concept? self-knowledge, self-expectation, social self, social evaluation
What is self awareness? relationship between person's perception of self in comparision with other's perceptions of him or her
What is Erik Erikson's take on self-concept? development of healthy self concept is dependent on success of accomplishing developmental tasks
How does self-concept develop? 3 steps: infant learns physical self is separate and different from environment, child internalizes other's' attitudes towards self, child and adult internalize standards of society,
What is global self? colletive beliefs and images a person holds about the self
What is self-concept thought to be based on? vocational performance, intellectual functioning, personal appearance & physical attractiveness, being liked by others, ability to cope & resolve problems, particular talents
What is perceived self? how they see themself vs. how others see them
What are the components of self concepts? personal identity; Body image; Role performance; Self-esteem;
What is role ambiguity? when people are unclear of role responsibility and do not know what to do or how to do it
What is role strain? when people feel inadequate or unsuited to a role
What is role conflict? comes from opposing or incompatible expectations of a role or position
What factors affect self concept? stage of development, family & culture, stressors, resources, history of success and failure, illness
What can lead to access, communication and compliance problems? If a person's culture, ethnicity, traditions and genetic factors conflict with mainstream medical practices
How many languages are spoken in Canada? over 200
How many languages in Canada? 33
When did Canada introduce policies on multiculturalism? What did this policy say? 1971 ---> encouraged to retain cultural beliefs and practices
When was the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms signed? what did it say? 1982 --> no discrimination
When was the employment Equity Act? 1986 --> no person denied employment for reasons unrelated to abilty
What is a culture? learned, shared, transmitted values, beliefs, norms & lifeway practices of a particular group that guid thinking, decisions and actions
What is a subculture? people who have a distinct identity and are also related to a larger cultural group
What is bi-culture? crosses of two cultures, lifestyles, and sets of values
What are the seven characteristics of culture? learned, taught, social, adaptive, shared, difficult to articulate, exists at many levels
What is ethnicity? people who identify with one another on the basis of a common social and cultural heritage --> race, skin color, bone structure, facial features, hair, texture
What is cultural vulnerability? a person or group is vulnerable for greater health risks because of communication difficulties, different beliefs, customs, values and/or prejudice
What is cultural awareness? conscience and informed recognition of difference and similarities between cultural and ethnic groups -- not derived solely from myths and stereotypes
What is cultural sensitivity? knowing that cultural differences and similarities exist without assigning values to those cultural differences, respect and appreciation for different cultural behaviors, beliefs, experiences & perspectives & willingness to explore differences
What is cultural competence? an ability to interact effectively with people of different cultures
What are the four components of cultural competence? awareness of one's own cultural worldview, attitude towards cultural differences, knowledge of different cultural practices & worldviews, willingness to accept differences
What does cultural safety require? nurses be respectful of nationality, culture, age, sex, political and religious beliefs
How do you show cultural sensitivity? adress by last name unless given permission, introduce self, ask permission for tasks, be honest, no discriminating language, find out what client knows, no assumptions, show respect for clients support system, learn about their culture
What is Ethnocentrism? view that one's own culture is superior to others
What is stereotyping? assumption that all members of a culture or ethnic group are alike (all black people are good at dancing)
What is prejudice? strongly held opinion about some topic or group
What is discrimination? differential treatment of individuals or groups based on: race, ethnicity, gender, social class, exceptionality
What models Guide Nursing practice? scientific, clinical or biomedical; holistic, traditional medicine
What is the Scientific, Clinical or Biomedical Model? belief that life and life processes are governed by physical and biomedical processes that can be manipulated --> things can be fixed
What is the holistic health beliefs model? forces of nature must be maintained in balance and harmony --> natural balance disrupted, illness results
Example of holistic health beliefs model? Medicine Wheel in First Nations communities --> need physical, mental, emotional and spiritual balance
What is the traditional medicine model? derived from cultural traditions not science (like chicken noodle soup when sick), usually in home or community, less expensive, health problem identified through conversations with client or family rather than testing
What are pharmacogentics? a client's response to a drug which is influenxed by genetics
What is ethnopharmacology the study of the effect of ethnicity on responses to medications
What is othering? identifying those that are thought to be different from oneself or mainstream --> results in marginalization
What does sexuality include? biological sex, gender identity & roles, sexual orientation, sensuality, eroticism, intimacy, reproduction
How is sexuality expressed? through thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles, relationships
How does family influence sexuality? children observe parent's behaviour and often model selves after parents
How does culture infleunce sexuality? how you dress, rules of marriage, attitudes about premarital sex, polygamy or monogamy
How does religion influence sexuality? acceptable & prohibited behaviour, premarital sex, save sex marriage
How does health and illness influence sexuality? heart disease, diabetes, spinal cord injury, chronic pain or joint disorders, STIs
Gay/lesbian attraction to same sex
Homophobia negative attitudes and feelings towards gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgendered
Heterosexism attitudes, biases, and discrimination towards those who are not in favor of heterosexual relationships.
Heteronormative belief that heterosexuality is the normal sexual orientation
Transgender strong and persistent feelings of discomfort with their assigned gender – sexual anatomy is not consistent with sexual identity
Bi-sexual attracted to both men and women
Cross-dresser males who dress to express their feminine side but who are not uncomfortable with their anatomy.
Asexual lack of sexual attraction or interest in or desire for sex
Up until what year was homosexuality considered a mental illness? 1970s
What are lesbian woman at risk for? greater risk of breast and ovarian cancer
Different Mental Illnesses Depression, Bipolar, Schizophrenia, OCD, ADD/ADHD, Eating disorders: anorexia, bulimia and binge
What is depression? unhappiness and temporary depression are normal, it becomes a clinical disorder when these feelings are severe, last for several weeks and interfere with work and social life.
Causes of depression? Distressing life event, Biochemical imbalance, Negative or pessimistic view of life, Genetic predisposition
Treatment for Depression medication, psychological counselling, support!
What is bipolar disorder (manic depression)? Periods of serious depression, followed by episodes of elevated or irritable moods (“highs”) --> shifts in our moods and missing sense of control --> No known cause
Treatment of Bipolar disorder recognize signs and triggers to prevent recurrences from becoming severe, treat depression (medication & therapy), electroconvulsive therapy
What is schizophrenia alteration in behavior, thinking, speech or socializing (16 to 30) (affects 1 in 100)
Positive (excess) symptoms of Schizophrenia? delusions; hallucinations; disorganized or confusing thoughts and speech
Negative (lacking) symptoms of schizophrenia? avoiding eye contact, apathy, lack of emotion, slowed speech, monotone, long pauses, reduction and slowing of movements, not interest in social participation
Causes of Schizophrenia? combination of genetics, environmental factors (urban area = high risk), problems to or during pregnancy (flu, malnutrition, diuretics, father older than 50), brain abnormalities (head injury, ab structure or function)
Treatment of schizophrenia? medications to decrease hallucinations & delusions, psychotherapy, support from family and other loved ones
What is OCD? isorder affecting thoughts, behaviors, emotions, and sensations --> worries become obsessions and compulsive rituals take over life --> obsessions intrusive and illogical
Cause of OCD? neurological imbalance, genetics, can happen in any age and gender
Coping/Treatment of OCD? early diagnosis and treatment can avoid depression and relationship problems, Medication & cognitive behavioral therapy
ADD and ADHD emotional effects aggressive/violent behaviour, withdrawal, anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, avoiding activities where they are unsure of success
ADD and ADHD goals? improve relationships and performance at school, decrease disruptive behaviours, promote safety, increase independence
Treatment of ADD and ADHD? medications and behavioural therapy
Which mental illness as the highest mortality rate? eating disorders
What is Anorexia nervosa? Severe weight loss due to extreme food reduction
What is bulimia nervosa? person binges on food or has regular episodes of overeating and feels a loss of control, then uses various methods -- such as vomiting or laxative abuse --> to prevent weight gain -->Many (but not all) people with bulimia also have anorexia nervosa
What is Binge-eating? compulsive over eating --> Often triggered by chronic dieting and involves periods of overeating, often in secret and often carried out as a means of comfort
Causes of eating disorders? Low self-esteem, feelings of inadequacy, lack of control, depression, anger, loneliness, relationship problems, difficulty expression emotions and feelings, media promotion of unrealistic images and goals
Treatment of eating disorders thorough medical assessment, nutritional guidance, support, individual, group and family therapy
What can you do to stop hurting people with mental illnesses? Use the STOP acronym
What is the S of STOP stop stereotyping people with mental illness --> not alike, they are individuals, influence others constructively
What is the T of STOP stop trivializing or belittling people with mental illness --> educate people on it
What is the O of STOP Stop offending people with mental illness by insulting them --> be careful of words, be sensitive
What is the P of STOP stop patronizing people with mental illness by treating them as if they were not as good as other people --> positive attitude
What factors affect the health care system? growth and demographic changes, uneven distribution of services, access to health care, climate change, population aging, woman's health, homeless populations, political and other leaders
What is health? a fundamental human right and therefore the attainment of global health is socially desirable objective on which to focus
What is global health? the optimal well-being of all humans on the planet considered from an individual and collective perspective
What does global health take into account? principles of primary health care, epidemiology, health promotion and high speed technology
What is globalization? the flow of information, good, capital and people across political and geographic boundaries
What are the positive impacts of globalization? shared knowledge and resources, allows poor countries and citizens to develop economically and raise their standards of living
What are the negative impacts of globalization? increase health risks due to world travel, may exacerbate & reinforce health inequity b/c knowledge & resources not shared equally, burdens developing countries with debt, benefits western world at expense of low income countries
What are other impacts of globalization? common language, reeduces competitive edge, spread of infectious disease, brain drain, lowers capacity of the ecological system to keep up, difficult to maintain food security
What is social justice? the concept of a society in which justice is achieved in every aspect of society rather than merely the administration of law
What is social justice in health care? every body having the same type of health care
What was the Millennium Development Summit? A UN meeting in New York in Sept 2000 that set goals for 2015
What are the 8 Millennium Development Goals? Eradicate extreme poverty & hunger, Universal primary education, gender equality & empower women, Reduce Child Mortality, Improve maternal health, Combat HIV/AIDS, maleria & other disease, Ensure enviornmental sustainability, global partnership for dvlpmt
Where does most of population occur? in the developing world
What are the fertility rates of the developed world? 1.7 children per women
What are the fertility rates of the developing world? 4.63 children per woman
What is the life expectancy for the developed world? 76.5 years
What is the life expectancy for the developing world? 65.4
Where is are most of the world's resources consumed? in North America --> North americans consume more energy and resources per person than people from other regions of the world
___% of world income goes to ___% of the world's people 94%, 40%
Half of the world live on $___ per day $2
Almost a _______ people live on less than $___ per day $1
What are some environmental contaminants? air pollution, household chemicals, water & pollution, noise pollution, radiation, food quality
What is climate change? long term change weather patterns
What is pollution? the changes quality, composition of water, soil and air that could make it less able to serve life
What are pollutants? waste product that pollutes the air
What are mutations? A change in DNA
What are teratogens? anything that can cause a birth defect
What is a carcinogen? a substance that can cause cancer
What are the 4 Rs of environmental awareness? reduce, reuse, recycle, recover
What does accreditations canada do? e provide national and international health care organizations with an external peer review process to assess and improve the services they provide to their patients and clients based on standards of excellence
Created by: db5k