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# Waves & Sound

### Sound Waves

TermDefinition
Wave when energy disturbs the particles in something it travels in this
Medium the material that a wave travels through (solid, liquid, or gas)
Crest the highest point on a wave
Trough the lowest point on a wave
Resting point when a wave has no energy and is "flat"
Amplitude a measure of how far the particles in a medium move away from the rest position (from rest to crest)
wavelength the distance from crest to crest or trough to trough (measures one cycle or repetition)
Transverse wave particles move up and down; perpendicular to the way that the wave is traveling Example: earthquake waves
Longitudinal wave particles move back and forth in the same direction that the wave travels Example: sound
Frequency measures wave speed and is expressed in Hertz. Found by counting how many crests go by in 1 second. Can be high or low.
Wave speed When a wave goes through something hot and/or very dense, this will increase. If it travels through something cold or not very dense, this will decrease.
Pitch measures how fast a wave is traveling in hertz; how HIGH or LOW a sound is as the wave's wavelength changes.
Loudness how well a sound can be heard or how much energy a sound has. Changes when the amplitude gets taller or shorter.
Hertz Unit that measures how fast a wave is traveling, or the pitch of a sound wave.
decibels Unit that measures how loud that a sound is.
Sound a wave made from vibrations. It causes the particles to vibrate back and forth. Must have a medium to travel, therefore it CANNOT travel in space.
Electromagnetic/Light Wave The one type of wave that CAN travel in space because it doesn't need a medium to travel.
Cochlea The part of your ear that is filled with liquid and tiny hair cells.
Solid A medium that sound can travel the fastest through.
Vacuum A place where there is no air, sound can't travel here.
Gas A medium that sound travels the slowest through.
Doppler Effect When something making sound (fire truck) is moving past you and you here a change in the pitch of the sound (even though it didn't really change).
Resonance when the natural frequency of an object is matched and it causes the object to vibrate (finger around glass, shattering glass with voice, musical instruments, etc.)
Sonic Boom Going faster than the speed of sound (over 750 mph) and breaking the sound barrier creates this.
Hammer, Anvil, and Stirrup Tiny bones in your ear that are connected and pass along the sound wave to help you hear.
Created by: wwmsScience6
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