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Nursing

Diagnostic Tests

QuestionAnswer
Abdominal Paracentesis Needle inserted to remove fluid N.R. Preop: Obtain baseline vitals, gather supplies. Assist pt with getting into position: Sit up in chair or bed. Postop: Monitor for pulmonary edema, crepitus, cardiac distress, change in vitals, abnormal breath sounds
Angiogram Radiographic imaging after insertion of radiopaque dyes. Monitor vitals, heart sounds, encourage fluids, look for allergic response. Signs of clot, stroke or MI
Arthroscopy Visualization of joint. Ensure pt is NPO for appropriate amount of time if receiving anesthesia. Gather assessment data. Post op: Monitor joint for bloody drainage, difficulty breathing, resp status, pain.
Barium Enema Liquid, becomes solid in stomach. Postop: Increase fluid intake and rest. Administer water colostomy irrigation or tap water enema to help remove barium. Watch for dehydration, abd pain, nausea, vomiting, and abd distension.
Bone Marrow Biopsy procedure done to remove a small amount of marrow from your bone. usually taken from hip bone. Ice is best started after the biopsy & for next 24-48 hours afterwards. Keep area clean & dry for 24 hours. Monitor for bleeding, swelling, signs of infection.
Bronchoscopy Visualizing respiratory system. Ensure pt is NPO for appropriate amount of time (6-8 hrs). Gather assessment. Postop Monitor for difficulty breathing, resp status, pain. Withhold fluids and food until gag reflex returns (usually 2 hrs)
Cardiac catherization Dye inserted through IV. NPO. Monitor vitals, heart and lung sounds, pulses, encourage fluids, look for allergies, signs of clot, induced stroke, MI
Cholangiography radiographic visualization of the bile ducts after ingestion or injection of a radiopaque substance.
Cholecystogram a radiograph of the gallbladder made after ingestion or injection of a radiopaque substance
Colonoscopy endoscopic examination of the colon. Monitor postop for bleeding, abd distension
CT Scan General High speed xrays that provide excellent cross sectional views of different structures. Require pt to lie still for varying amounts of time while scanner rotates around pt. Noninvasive and painless.
CT Scan Brain Shows presence, nature, location, and extent of acute lesions. Helpful in management of head injury b/c it can disclose cerebral edema, contusion, intracerebral or extracerebral hematoma, intraventricular hemorrhage, and late changes.
CT Scan Kidney and Urinary tract Used to evaluate genitourinary masses, nephrolithiasis, chronic renal infections, renal or urinary tract trauma, metastatic disease and soft tissue abnormalities
CT Scan Lungs Scanned in successive layers by a narrow beam xray. It distinguishes fine tissue density, defines pulmonary nodules, and small tumors adjacent to pleural surfaces.
Cystography X-ray photography of the urinary bladder after injection of a contrast medium
Doppler Studies Sound waves produced by ultrasound Differentiates normal from diseased tissue,transmitted through fluid,not bone or contrast material No risk Pt may need to drink 4 glasses of water before ultrasound of pelvic organs to enhance transmission of sound waves
Echocardiogram Records heart motion NOT heart outline. Pt is supine and ECG leads placed on chest simultaneously record heart activity during ultrasound. Pt placed in different positions to obtain different views of heart
EEG (Electroencephalogram) Record of electrical activity generated in brain. electrodes applied on scalp or microelectrodes placed within brain tissues Useful for diagnosing seizure disorders, coma. Tumors, brain abscesses, blood clots, & infections may cause abnormal patterns
EKG/ECG (Electrocardiogram) Requires 15 minutes, electrodes attached to skin of chest, arms, and legs connected with wires to ECG machine. Electrical impulses from heart are transmitted from body. Procedure does not cause any discomfort.
EMG (Electromyogram) Provides info about electrical potential of the muscles and nerves leading to them. Used to evaluate muscle weakness, pain, and disability. Can differentiate muscle and nerve problems. Needle electrodes inserted into selected muscles & responses recorded.
ERCP (Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography) radiographic visualization of the pancreatic and biliary ducts. Pt NPO, sedated. Post op: monitor vitals, signs of perforation or infection, and for return of cough and gag reflexes.
Esophagoscopy examination of the esophagus.
Gastroscopy an endoscope for inspecting the interior of the stomach
Holter Monitoring Continuous monitor of cardiac activity for 24-48 hrs. Portable device worn around the waist or over the shoulder. Records electric impulses on a magnetic strip. Pt pushes button indicating they were experiencing pain, palpations, dyspnea, or syncope.
IVP (Intravenous pyelogram) radiographic visualization obtained after IV administration of a radiopaque medium which collects in & is excreted by kidneys. Postop monitor IV site for hematoma, infiltration, note anxiety, warmth, flushing, itching, sweating & signs of renal failure.
Laryngoscopy examination of the interior of the larynx. Postop withhold fluids and food until gag reflex returns (usually 2 hrs)
Liver Biopsy Nursing Resp: Obtain lab values before scheduled test (PT, bleeding time, platelet count). Pt may need to be NPO 6 hrs. Tissue is removed after a special needle is inserted into liver, tissue will then be studied to determine presence of a disease.
Lumbar Puncture Preop: Determine if consent obtained. Explain procedure. Reassure pt that needle will not enter spinal cord or cause paralysis. Needle inserted through subarachnoid space through 3rd-4th or 4th-5th lumbar to withdraw spinal fluid
Lumbar Puncture PostOp Instruct pt to lie prone 2-3 hrs to separate alignment of dural and arachnoid needle punctures and reduce leakage of CSF. Monitor for complications and encourage increased fluid intake to reduce risk of headache.
Mammography Instruct client to avoid applying any substance to skin of breasts, chin, or underarms Administer mild analgesic too much pain. Breasts are positioned on a flat plastic or metal holder & compressed without wrinkles. pt takes deep breath & holds it
MRI Magnetic fields & radiofrequency signals are used to yield highly detailed diagnostic image. Pt lies flat on a surface, still as possible and may be required to be in machine for up to 90 minutes.
Open MRI Less confining, but uses weaker magnetic fields, may take longer to obtain images and images contain less detail
Myelogram differential study of the cellular elements present in bone marrow. Postop pt lies in bed with HOB elevated 30-45 degrees. Pt advised to stay in position for 3 hrs, drink lots of fluids, monitor pt ability to void
Sigmoidoscopy passed through the anus in order to permit inspection, diagnosis, treatment, and photography especially of the sigmoid colon.
Stress Test Pt undergoes an exercise or pharmacologic stress test in which the heart is monitored by an ECG, echocardiogram or both
Thoracentesis aspiration of fluid from the chest. Postop monitor for pulmonary edema, crepitus, cardiac distress, change in vital signs, electrolyte shifts. Take chest xray for signs of vascular collapse
Ultrasonography vibrations of the same physical nature as sound but with frequencies above the range of human hearing
Created by: senmark