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AP Comp Gov - Mexico

Making of the Modern State - Part 2

1917 Constitution created under President Carranza; still the constit today; denied presidential reelection; limited powers of Catholic Church; prohibited foreign ownership of Mex land; endorsed breakup of haciendas
President Venustiano Carranza first president post revolution; responsible for 1917 Constitution; ultimately assassinated
sexenio 6 year term
haciendas broken up by 1917 Constitution with compensation for their owners
Alvaro Obregon defeated Pancho Villa in 1915; expanded public education and attempted land reform; succeeded in 1923 by Calles
Plutarco Elias Calles became president in 1923; consolidated power with extreme anticlericalism; founded PRI to assure continuity of presidency through nomination and electioneering
anticlericalism extreme anti-catholicism; policy under Plutarco Elias Calles that resulted in clashes with the Catholic Church
Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) founded in 1929 by Plutarco Elias Calles as a way to assure the continuity of the presidency through nomination and electioneering
corporatist state what Mexico became in the post-revolutionary period; interest groups became an institutionalized part of state structure rahter than independent advocates; antithesis to civil society
Lazaro Cardenas president during reforms of Great Depression era; agrarian reform, nationalizing natural resource industries, encouraging creation of labor unions, presidentialism
agrarian reform redistributed more land than all predecessors; half of land taken from haciendas turned into ejidos
ejidos collective or cooperative farms
ejidatarios those who acquire ejido lands; became an enduring base of support for the PRI
nationalizing natural resource industries by 1920s, most of oil industry controlled by foreign firms; 1938, nationalized oil wells, an example of economic nationalism
PEMEX one government-owned firm that all nationalized oil wells and refineries were placed under
Confederation of Mexican Workers (CTM) official trade union created under Lazaro Cardenas; created with PRI encouragement
clienelism; patron-client or patronage based on PRI (patron) providing favors to union and ejido (the clients) in return for political support
presidentialism a pattern of executive dominance in the political system was strongly reestablished
Manuel Avila Camacho moderate PRI president that followed Cardenas; end of revolutionary period in Mexican history
state capitalism economic policy between 1940 and 1982; relyied on government actions to encourage private investment
import substitution industrialization (ISI) promote industries to supply the domestic market; ie domestic companies start making what was previously supplied by international sources
Miguel Aleman 1946-1952; conservative who pursued rapid economic growth through industrialization with a few key industries owned by the state
Alemanista rapid economic growth through industrialization with a few key industries owned by the state; approach to eco development was followed by the next four presidents
Luis Echeverria 1970-1976; economic problems mounted, debt grew, and the peso had to be devalued
co-opted repressed opponents to PRI rule after a bloody crackdown on student demonstrations
Jose Lopez Portillo 1976-1982; stablization of the economy in post-OPEC slump; IMF bailout; imposition of wage and price controls; increased political freedoms but increased corruption
Miguel de la Madrid 1982-1988; economic crisis!; turning towards market based economy; embracing of tecnicos; poor response to the 1985 Mexico City earthquake
market based economy economy Mexico embraced when pressured by international forces; economic crisis had destroyed faith in state capitalism and ISI
tecnicos studied economics, business in US; like technocrats of China
1985 Mexico City earthquake poor response led to losses in 1988 elections, indicated a weakening in the PRI's electoral grip while the conservative, business oriented National Action Party gained seats
Carlos Salinas de Gortari 1988-1994; won election through fraud and deceit; appointed tecnicos; continued market oriented policies; signed NAFTA
NAFTA (North American Free Trade Association) committed Mexico, the US, and Canada to the elimination of trade barriers; economic crisis in 1994 w/foreign capital flight and devaluation of peso
Ernesto Zedillo 1994-2000; large foreign loan bailout due to financial crisis; severe and unpopular economic austerity program that was instituted to restore economic stability; Zapatista movement; gov and PRI popularity plummeted; electoral reforms = PRI losses
Zapatista (EZLN) guerilla movement that seized towns in the Chiapas state, demanding land, indigenous rights, and the repeal of NAFTA
Vicente Fox 2000-2006; first non-FRI candidate to win the presidency in 70 years; candidate for the National Action Party (PAN), supported by the urban middle class; divided government problem for administration and passing reforms
Felipe Calderon 2006-2012; PAN; focused on attacking narcotics traffickers; attempted improvements in state industries like Pemex, devided gov stood in way
Enrique Pena Nieto 2012- ; PRI candidate; formed legislative alliances to push forward a reform agenda
Created by: seniors14



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