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AP Comp Gov - Mexico

Making of the Modern State - Part 1

TermDefinition
effect of mountains make unification hard; create challenges for communications and travel
patrias chicas little countries; outside of central control; cut off due to mountains
caicqes originally Indian chiefs, now local political bosses; crumpled geography forced national government to work through them
mestizos part Amerindian and part white; largest ethnic group in Mexico
Mexica where Mexico's name derives from; an Aztec tribe
maquiladoras Mexicans sought work in industrial cities of the north where there are numerous assembly industries called these
NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement; created more jobs in Mexico, but more illegal entries to the US
Maya 1000 years ago, one of the most civilized / advanced countries; declined in the 1500s to the Aztecs
Aztecs centralized empire in Mexico, came to power after Mayans
Hernan Cortes 1519, he destroyed Aztec capital; did this with "guns, germs, and steel"; vast majority died because of diseases from which there was no immunity
New Spain lacked self-gov and legal traditions like America and British colonies did; tradition derived from autocratic rule of Spanish monarch and his appointed governor
Miguel Hidalgo 1st declared independence, ringing a church bell; Creole priest; raised army, but a poor military strategist; forces defeated and killed
grito de dolores the cry of sorrows;
caudillos strong man dictator; 100+ years after independence, Mexico swung back and forth between these
Santa Ana most significant caudillos; victory at the Alamo; initial victory became a loss when Mexico lost Texas and Mexican American War
Benito Juarez Mexico's first Amerindian president; pursued La Reforma
La Reforma new constitution that, among other things, stripped the church of virtually all its wealth and civil power
Porfirio Diaz 1871, campaigned that no president should be reelected, lost, then launched military coup; longest dictatorship in Mexico's history; reign was deemed "Porfiriato"
Porfiriato 30 years of stable government after decades of chaos; w/stability came foreign investment and first steps in building a modern infrastructure; like Mexico's Industrial Revolution; "order and progress" was motto
rurales 5 million peasants forced into servitude under haciendas, controlled by ruthless mercenaries called this
Francisco Madero popular candidate who claimed election fraud in the 1910 election; conflict sparked by him in addition to wide-spread resentment and ultimate conflict in countryside due to abuses by the Diaz regime; was a weak leader post Revolution
Emiliano Zapata southern part of Mexico, he organized a guerilla war against the government troops and rich landowners
Pancho Villa similar to Zapata, but in the north
Venustiano Carranza refused to accept authority of Victoriano Huerta as leader (guy who overthrew Madero); took arms in civil war against Zapata and Villa; won by 1916
effect of Mexican Revolution created national identity by involving Mexicans from all regions and strata of society in an iconic struggle
Created by: seniors14