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Exam 6 Flashcards

QuestionAnswer
What name is given to the process in which a strand of DNA is used as a template for the manufacture of a strand of pre-mRNA? Transcription
What name is given to the process in which the information encoded in a strand of mRNA is used to construct a protein? Translation
What name is given to the process in which pre-mRNA is edited into mRNA? RNA processing
Polypeptides are assembled from ______. amino acids
RNA processing converts the RNA transcript into _____. mRNA
The direction of synthesis of an RNA transcript is ______. 5' -> 3'
What is the process called that converts the genetic information stored in DNA to an RNA copy? Transcription
DNA does not store the information to synthesize which of the following? Organelles
Transcription begins at a promoter. What is a promoter? A site in DNA that recruits the RNA Polymerase
Which of the following statements best describes the promoter of a protein-coding gene? The promoter is a nontranscribed region of a gene.
What determines which base is to be added to an RNA strand during transcription? Base pairing between the DNA template strand and the RNA nucleotides
Which of the following terms best describes the relationship between the newly synthesized RNA molecule and the DNA template strand? Complementary
What happens to RNA polymerase II after it has completed transcription of a gene? It is free to bind to another promoter and begin transcription
During RNA processing a(n) _____ is added to the 3' end of the RNA. a long string of adenine nucleotides
During RNA processing a(n) _____ is added to the 5' end of the RNA. modified guanine nucleotide
Spliceosomes are composed of ______. snRNPs and other proteins
The RNA segments joined to one another by spliceosomes are ______. exons
Translation occurs in the _____. cytoplasm
Where does translation take place? Ribosome
Which nucleic acid is translated to make a protein? mRNA
Which of the following processes is an example of a post-translational modification? Phosphorylation
Which of the following steps occurs last in the initiation phase of translation? The large ribosomal subunit joins the complex
At which site do new aminoacyl tRNAs enter the ribosome during elongation A-site
What is meant by translocation? The ribosome slides on codon down the mRNA
True or false. A tRNA with an anticodon complementary to the stop codon catalyzes the reaction by which translation is terminated. False
What enzyme catalyzes the attachment of an amino acid to tRNA? aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase
The tRNA anticodon, GAC, is complementary to the mRNA codon with the sequence _____. CUG
The initiator tRNA attaches at the ribosome's _____ site. P
True or false? A codon is a group of three bases that can specify more than on amino acid. False
Which of the following statements about mutations is false? A knock-out mutation results in a total absence of the mutated protein.
If a DNA sequence is altered from TAGCTGA to TAGTGA, what kind of mutation has occurred? Deletion
Which mutation(s) would not change the remainder of the reading frame of a gene sequence that follows the mutation(s)? One addition and one deletion mutation
If the sequence ATGCATGTCAATTGA were mutated such that a base were inserted after the first G and the third T were deleted, how many amino acids would be changed in the mutant protein? Two
If a mutated DNA sequence produces a protein that differs in one central amino acid from the normal protein, which of the following kinds of mutations could have occurred? An addition mutation and a deletion mutation
For any given gene, what ultimately determines which DNA strand serves as the template strand? the base sequence of the gene's promoter
Created by: lwelch4