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BEHP 5012 Unit 5

Experimental Design Repeated, systematic presentation and removal of an independent variable (or IV) While measuring changes in the dependent variable (or DV) and holding other factors constant
The primary goals of systematic experimental manipulation To demonstrate a functional relation between the IV and DV and to evaluate the interventions once they are decided upon
Functional relation Changes in an antecedent or consequent stimulus class consistently alter a dimension of a response class
Internal validity The extent to which an analysis assures that measured changes in behavior are due to the manipulation and not due to uncontrolled extraneous variables.
External validity The extent to which a study’s results are generalizable to other subjects, settings, or behaviors.
Threats to internal validity History Maturation Testing Instrumentation Diffusion of treatment Regression towards the mean Selection bias Attrition
History Introduction of the IV may coincide with other events in the person's life
Maturation Natural developmental events of learning experiences may coincide with the introduction of the IV to produce the change
Testing Changes in the DV may have come about as a function of repeated exposure to the experimental arrangements (e.g. practice effects)
Instrumentation Changes may reflect modifications in the measurement systems rather than effects of the IV
Diffusion of Treatment Inadvertent, uncontrolled "seepage" of the treatment to control conditions or control subjects
Regression towards the mean Changes occurred because baseline measurements were NOT representative of the natural stare of events (less relevant in SCD because of repeated measure)
Selection bias The assignment of subject to groups may have biased the outcome even in the absence of any intervention (less relevant in SCD because each participant serves as own control)
Attrition The loss of subjects over time, especially if systematic, may influence the effects (less relevant in SCD because each participant serves as own control)
Minimizing Validity Threats Measurement Stability Immediacy Replication
Single-Case Designs The repeated and systematic presentation and removal of a treatment and measurement of behavior while holding other factors constant
Baseline Assessment of the dependent variable prior to the introduction or change of the independent variable
Phase Change Movement in the analysis from one level or kind of independent variable to the next level or kind of independent variable
A-B Design Baseline phase followed by a treatment phase effect is demonstrated when behavior changes from one phase to the next
Withdrawal Design Baseline is followed by a treatment condition.
Reversal Design An intervention is applied to the target behavior after a baseline phase
Multiple Baseline Design Two or more independent baselines are established. The IV is then separately introduced in a staggered fashion to each BL. When bx is stable for the first baseline, the IV is introduced on the second baseline, and so on
Multiple probe technique First baseline is continuous, but subsequent baseline data collection is conducted on an intermittent basis relative to the first baseline
Created by: duriarte2013